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The Roles of a Nursing in Health Care


This paper is aimed at discussing the health problems faced by a male patient, who is aged 29. His height is 1.85 meters while his weight is 111 kilograms. It should also be noted that this person is a heavy smoker, and he predominantly leads a sedentary lifestyle. Furthermore, this individual struggles with the effects of occupational stress that frequently results in various anxiety disorders and depression. This paper will include several parts. In particular, one should mention nursing diagnosis, interventions, and outcomes that should be achieved. Furthermore, it is necessary to discuss data, information, knowledge, and wisdom that guided that my decision-making. This analysis is important for explaining the roles that a nurse should play to assist this patient.

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Nursing Diagnosis (NANDA)

Actual diagnosis

  1. Imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements related to sedentary lifestyles and irregular diet (Ackley & Ladwig, 2013, p. 4).
  2. Ineffective breathing pattern that could be caused by the heavy smoking.
  3. Stress overload that is evidenced by irritability, rapid speech, and fatigue.

Health promotion diagnosis

  1. Readiness for enhanced nutrition that is expressed by the desire to change one’s dietary habits (Ackley & Ladwig, 2013, p. 4).
  2. Readiness for enhanced knowledge that is reflected in the willingness to learn as much as possible about the impacts of smoking and improper diet.

Risk diagnosis

  1. Risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes,
  2. Risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer
  3. Risks for depression and anxiety disorders.

These threats can manifest themselves if the patient does not change many of his habits that impair his daily experiences.

Syndrome nursing diagnosing

Occupational stress is useful for explaining many of the symptoms displayed by this person. It often leads to anxiety, willingness to smoke, and inability to have a balanced diet. Medical workers should identify various strategies that are useful for minimizing the effects of stress on physiological and mental processes.

Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)

  1. Promotion of a behavioral change, namely the adoption of a more active lifestyle (Bulechek & Butcher, 2013, p. 351).
  2. Smoking cessation assistance (Bulechek & Butcher, 2013, p. 351).
  3. Coping enhancement: assisting a person in adjusting to the perceived distress (Bulechek & Butcher, 2013, p. 584).

These interventions can help this person cope with many difficulties that he currently faces.

Nursing Outcomes Classifications (NOC)

  1. Weight loss behavior (Moorhead, 2014, p. 23).
  2. Smoking cessation behavior (Moorhead, 2014, p. 23).
  3. Improved stress management skills.

Overall, NANDA, NIC, and NOC are necessary for recommending the proper treatment that can improve the mental and physical state of the patient.


While making the diagnosis, I had to collect different types of data. In particular, I focused on such indicators as weight and height. They are necessary for determining the extent to which a person suffers from overweight. For instance, they can be applied to calculate the body mass index. Additionally, I had to ask the patient about the average number of cigarettes that he smokes per day.


Additionally, I focused on scholarly articles that include information about the impacts of obesity and smoking on the health of an individual. In particular, my attention was attracted to such problems as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, lung cancer, and so forth (Day & Bailey, 2011). In this case, one should not concentrate only on the physiological effects. It is necessary to bear in mind that the sedentary lifestyle is also associated with such problems as depression and a low level of self-esteem (Forsyth, Williams, & Deane, 2015). Admittedly, this patient has not been diagnosed with any of these diseases (Ackley & Ladwig, 2013). Nevertheless, the likelihood of these risks should not be overlooked by other medical workers. It is vital to remember that the effects of overweight are more likely to manifest themselves when a person reaches adulthood (Shestha & Copenhaver, 2015). Moreover, they can become more severe if this individual does not cope with occupational stress that profoundly impairs his mental health (Ackley & Ladwig, 2013). This information is helpful for identifying the strategies that a nurse should adopt.

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Furthermore, I examined various interventions that can improve the health of this adult. In this case, nurses should view themselves as educators who can inform patients about possible risks of the imbalanced diet or sedentary lifestyles. Moreover, they should set guidelines that can help these people overcome the effects of diseases. For instance, they can discuss various stress management techniques that can considerably benefit many smokers. Moreover, these professionals can describe physical exercises that patients should do to reduce their weight. These steps are necessary for promoting the health of this individual.


This scenario indicates that very often, the health problems faced by individuals are determined primarily by their lifestyles. Furthermore, the way in which they perceive stressors is an important variable that influences their physical and mental health. In turn, nurses and other medical workers should change the attitudes of individuals. It is the first objectives that should be attained. Moreover, their actions should be driven by the assumption that prevention is usually more efficient than different forms of treatment. The problem is that at some stages, medical workers can only minimize the symptoms of a disease, but they cannot cure it. This argument applies to this adult who is exposed to the risks of diabetes or even cancer that can be incurable. Therefore, preventive measures should be viewed as the top priority. In many cases, they can considerably prolong the life of a person. The main strength of this patient is that he is fully aware of the dangers associated with his current lifestyles. Thus, he is more willing to change his behavior. This attribute can make him more resilient to possible health problems. However, he cannot adopt effective strategies for managing stress. This weakness prevents this adult from changing his lifestyles. For instance, he relies on smoking believing hoping that it can alleviate the effects of stress. It is one of the dangers that should be taken into account.


Overall, the discussion of this case highlights the importance of medical terminologies applied by nurses. Their use is helpful for describing the health of a person. Moreover, these terminologies are essential for maintaining health records (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2015). In this way, nurses can help other medical workers learn about the fundamental problems that influence a patient. So, they will get access to the relevant information as soon as possible. In turn, this scenario illustrates the importance of behavioral changes for improving the health of a person. In this way, this patient can avoid many risks. Moreover, this individual should alter his perceptions of the challenges that he encounters on a daily basis. In many cases, the extent of these problems may be exaggerated.

Reference List

Ackley, B., & Ladwig, G. (2013).Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care. New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Bulechek, G., & Butcher, H. (2013). Nursing Interventions Classification. New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Day, C., & Bailey, C. (2011). Obesity in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease, 11(2), 55-61.

Forsyth, A., Williams, P., & Deane, P. (2015). Physical activity, but not fitness level, is associated with depression in Australian adults. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 55(7), 845-858.

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McGonigle, D. & Mastrian, K. (2015). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Moorhead, S. (2014). Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC): Measurement of Health Outcomes. New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Shestha, R., & Copenhaver, M. (2015). Long-term effects of childhood risk factors on cardiovascular health during adulthood. Clinical Medical Review of Vascular Health, 12(7), 1-5.

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