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The Scientific Revolution

Introduction

Scientific revolution contributed to the modern world, and a final Renaissance expression. Philosophers such as Aristotle, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo and Isaac Newton brought the scientific revolution. Copernicus sought to get an answer to the movement of the planets, as put across by the ancient scientists through the use of elementary mathematics formula. He used most of the scientific literature that he came across in the Greek manuscripts, which came from Constantinople. He realized that most Greek philosophers suggested that the earth would move, but they provided no mathematical or scientific explanation to that.

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Copernicus

Copernicus came up with a hypothesis that the sun is at the centre of the universe. His model, referred to as heliocentric, explained the heavenly bodies’ movement, rotation of the earth and the motion of the sun. The earth’s movement, caused the appearance of the stars and the sun. His discovery did not appear useful to the day-to-day activities, and most people did not think about it apart from a few scientists. Copernicus hypothesis appeared to contradict the Holy Scripture, and Christians recognized that this discovery meant a threat to the church. Luther argued that Copernicus wished to reverse science, and at the time contradict the Holy Scriptures. Together with other reformers, Luther suggested that stiff measures should be taken against Copernicus. When Rheticus, Copernicus’ student, took the manuscript for publication, an anonymous preface to the book appeared to assert that Copernicus words should not be given a lot of consideration. Bruno, who came up with an advanced version of Copernicus theory, became executed, for his views were heretical. He argued that the Bible should be followed due to its moral teachings, but not for its astronomy. He further added that philosophies and religions should have a mutual understanding and tolerance.

Kepler

Another scientific revolution philosopher, Kepler, discovered that Copernicus’ observations followed a path known as an orbit and that each planet has a different speed from each other, depending on the distance from the sun. His discovery suppressed the catholic and the Protestants’ motive to ignore Copernicus discovery. Kepler argued that if they drew a line to the planet from the sun on its orbit, the line would sweep equal areas with the same time intervals. He further said that the different orbits, mathematically, relate to each other. He used ratios to describe this discovery. Kepler spent much of his time observing heavenly bodies. He said that Pythagoras theorem could be used to understand his invention.

Galileo

Galileo came after the breakthrough of Kepler. Copernican’s scientific revolution would succeed through the use of mathematics and superiority. Galileo discovered the telescope, with help of which observed the heaven clearing the mysteries that existed at that time. He observed mountains and craters on the moon’s surface, moving spots on the sun, four moons around Jupiter, and the Milky Way around Venus. All these supported Copernican theory of heliocentric. He advised scientists to use measurable qualities in order to judge nature accurately. These qualities would include shape, size, weight, motion, and number. He urged them to ignore perceptive qualities such as color, taste, smell, sound and touch. Galileo invented microscope, telescope, magnet, geometric compass, hydrostatic balance and air thermometer. Use of these technical instruments helped people discover a lot about the universe. Galileo developed the law of uniform acceleration of motion. He also discovered inertia arguing that a body in motion would remain so unless it is pushed.

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton brought the breakthrough of the scientific revolution. Questions came up on how the planets moved, and why terrestrial objects fell towards the surface of the earth. The question on how large the universe came up because the stars were said to be large. Religious questions also came up about the place God lived if the planets were, indeed, nine. Newton, who was born on Christmas day when Galileo died, found answers to these questions. He established the force of gravity that caused the fall of stones to the earth. The same force made the planets revolve around the sun. He argued that the force of gravity pulled the planets towards the sun, that made them remain stable on their own orbits. He said that the same law of a stone falling towards the earth is applied to the moon, as well.

Reaction of the church and fate of the religion

A serious contradiction now exists between the church and scientists. It was obvious that the church would take actions. The Catholic Church using its suppression powers, and awakened by theological implications of Copernican, interrogated Galileo. He recanted and was arrested. The Catholic Church dismissed and banished all the Catholics who supported scientific inventions. All writings that spoke of the earth’s revolution became prohibited and condemned. Scientists argued that God allowed the universe to run itself using these immutable laws. God, therefore, appeared as a divine architect, a clock maker and a mathematician. The universe, on the other hand, appeared as being uniformly regulated and with impersonal phenomenon. The role of man in the universe appeared to be his intelligence, which enabled him to benefit and empower himself. It came to a conclusion that man was the crown of creation. This brought about the revolution and a new, modern era (Richard, p. 267).

Work Cited

Richard Tarnas. The Passion of Western Mind. London: Random House Publishing Group, 2011.

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"The Scientific Revolution." StudyCorgi, 13 Jan. 2022, studycorgi.com/the-scientific-revolution/.

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