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The Significance of the Governmental Terms

Government: The economic significance of the government is to stabilize and ensure growth of economic activities, create employment opportunities, and create price stability. Economically, government can significantly affect the fiscal and monetary policies which can positively or negatively affect the growth rate of the economy.

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Autocracy: Socially, autocracy creates situations whereby citizens have no means of expressing their needs, thus, the nation is at risk for enhancing negative concerns of citizens. There is limited room for social growth and creativity as the new ideas must coincide with desires of the autocrat.

Oligarchy: Historically, oligarchies have brought about change by forcing monarchs to share power e.g. in the English Magna Carta. Societies may become oligarchies by default due to shifting alliance among the warring chieftains, but any form of government is likely to run into some form of oligarchy at some point in its development, gradual because of some unchecked economic advantages and may even transform itself into authoritarian government.

Democracy: Politically, democracy has influenced power structures in societies. People’s will is a respected phrase that has been ineffective due to a logical fallacy, which contributes to its loss of meaning in an ideal democracy where decisions are by the majority and not unanimous. Socially, democracy remains invariably representative except in issues that require direct votes in referendums.

Constitutional Government: Politically, constitution government has shown that people can choose to be governed only by laws they have consented freely through electing their representatives. Socially, people must realize the need for rule by law rather than whim. Thus, constitution becomes essential document for creating an orderly society.

Authoritarian Government: Politically, authoritarian governments have established some strict standards of governing their countries with no limit but fear of the military takeover. Authoritarian regimes have kept Latin American countries running. They no longer see the value of democratically elected leaders.

Totalitarian Government: Political systems have significant monopoly of all state systems, and have ideologies that try to address and define means of attaining end goals using a single channel that people must support through compulsory processes such as voting. Any attempts of dissents meet suppressions by secret agents. Socially, this regime takes control of lives of citizens using whatever means suitable for them.

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Conscription: Historically, conscription is mandatory in some countries to show a sense of patriotism. However, it has remained controversial issue in Canada and among some Libertarians who consider it slavery and unconstitutional since it is a mandatory work.

Free Riding: Socially, free riding has remained an illegal act among members as it is a secret venture that only a syndicate member knows. Ideally a group should provide benefit at the cost of each person, but it is mainly a small sub-group that already benefit even at the expense of its own members contribution. Thus, it is disturbing in the sense that the number of free riders are increasing and getting away with benefits unfairly, and a conscious group will refuse this and the idea of free ride would not succeed.

Public Good: Socially, public good or service has contributed to consumptions with no limits even among those who do not have, or have not contributed. Economically, public goods may include resources such as information, economic statistics, free healthcare, education, national defense, law enforcement, natural parks, public place, and other resources for the benefits and use for all.

Politics: Socially, politics purposely must help people acquire knowledge of their country and become reflective and active citizens who take part in contemporary democratic processes such as voting. Historically, politics reflects the origin, growth and development, economic, and social institutions of government.

Collective Action: Social movements came up because of communal good, and they are synonymous with collective action. In collective action, there are ways to influence members, make them contribute for their interest and in some cases, it could be motivation rather self-interest that drives individuals participation in collective action. Collective action enhances the strength of a group, resources, efforts, and knowledge that aim at achieving a common goal for all parties.

By-product theory: Politically, by-product theory significantly contributes to individuals’ participation in groups’ activities because of the private goods that an individual wants. However, economically, innovations in entrepreneurs ensure that such private goods are available in the market such that the usefulness of private goods reduces significantly, for instance, a firm may offer medical cover for workers to stop them from joining unions.

Selective Benefits: Sociologists main concerns are the desirability of provision of social welfare so that people may have basic wants and needs, and ensuring equality, to some extent, in society. On the other hand, there are critics of selective benefits from the New Right who note that selective benefits are insufficient, undermine personal dignity, encourages dependency, and economically increase taxation, which weakens the economy.

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Institutions: Socially, institutions aim at enhancing the necessary functions in the society with the aim of maintaining, protecting, and improving the welfare of the community or group life and the social order. Social institutions have significances in the human welfare, as they act as unseen forces that help individuals observe the law based on moral regulations and cultural requirements in a society.

Agenda Power: Politically, agenda power has influenced what becomes and does not become an issue of governmental consideration with regard to power. We can relate agenda setting with politics and power in the American public policy process where some get benefits more than others without regard for other benefits i.e. there are winners, and losers in the process which create imbalances in sharing resources. Usually, winners will get what they want, sometimes even without getting involved in the political process.

Veto Power: Socially, veto powers in President has been useful by giving the citizens a defense against special interests since the president comes to power through a whole population; thus, veto power must protect him from charges of favoritism than individual representatives. Politically, the president will not get re-election if he constantly favors a certain region or special interest i.e. the president must be aware of the interest of the whole population rather than a constituent part.

Delegation: In management, delegation has been useful in helping both the leader and subordinates get stability regarding work concerns. Leaders can think of increasing the number of departments and targeted division of labor; thus, the system must create additional management team to utilize their experiences as skilled managers. We can conclude that delegation goes beyond the process and includes how leaders can increase output and management by providing stability, ability, and address real concerns.

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