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Tricare and Other Health Insurance Programs


Tricare is a health care program for the military and other security forces in the United States. Tricare serves both active military personnel and military retirees, military families, and some reserve members (Tricare – Health Plans, 2021). This civilian program is administered by the United States Department of Health and the United States Department of Defense. Historically, the military in the service has priority in receiving medical assistance; however, veterans, military retirees, and employees who did not participate in hot spots rarely received assistance due to the employment of military doctors, especially during conflicts. In this regard, it became necessary to create a similar program, which has changed all its way since the end of the 1980s. Tricare contains nine different programs that provide benefits and coverage for different groups of people or different approaches to building insurance. This paper will look at all nine programs, plus the CHAMPVA add-ons insurance plan, their coverage, eligibility, compensation, claims and appeals, and the state of Texas.

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Tricare Select

This program is available worldwide and provides access to any Tricare-approved healthcare provider without a referral, except in a few specific cases. If a member visits a provider who is not a Tricare Authorized Provider, the patient pays the total cost of the services to the provider and submits a reimbursement claim with Tricare. This type of program implies a fee for services but at the same time allows going to any doctor. Contributions differ according to two criteria: firstly, significant contributions are paid by participants who have registered the whole family; secondly, preferential contributions are paid by those who entered the program until 2018 (Tricare – Health Plans, 2021). At the same time, there are limited values ​​of insurance payments in this program, which differ in the same characteristics. Finally, co-payments are meant, which are paid one-time at each visit to a specific doctor or specialist, and also have their own gradation according to the same criteria.

This program almost wholly repeats the capabilities of Select, only for clients abroad. At the same time, this type of insurance is considered the minimum required insurance following the Affordable Care Act (Zickafoose et al., 2019). One needs to meet with a specific specialist representing the company abroad for registration purposes to join the program. Payment for this type of program differs depending on the sponsor chosen or possible in the given territory. Annual fees and co-payments for attendance also remain the responsibility of the program member; however, more detailed information is more difficult to find in the public domain since each service provider uses different sources and sponsors, which is why pricing can vary significantly depending on the country of use.

Tricare Prime

This program is suitable for active military personnel, while their family members will have to choose Tricare Select. Unlike Select, this program charges fewer fees but also reduces the number of health care providers available. This program is also valid only on the Prime territory; for those living outside this zone, the Prime Remote and Prime Overseas programs are offered. In addition to active military personnel, activated members of the guard or reserve and their families, medal bearers, and survivors can participate in the program. In addition, pensioners and their families are allocated, but only if they do not participate in the Tricare for Life program (Tricare – Health Plans, 2021). Under this program, each insured member has its own assigned primary health care manager who constantly monitors health indicators and can advise the member with the assistance of a qualified professional.

This type of program is used in remote areas of the United States. Remote, in this case, means finding the registered address at the place of residence 50 kilometers or more from the nearest military hospital or clinic. There are special online services to determine involvement in this program, as well as the ability to contact a regional specialist to clarify this issue. Eligible members are no different from Prime members. The main service activity is carried out by a primary health care manager, who decides not only on treatment but also on authorization, searches for specialists, and files complaints. There are also no entrance fees, as well as a visit fee, again, except for the moments of contacting an unregistered healthcare provider in the Tricare database (Tricare – Health Plans, 2021). For the eastern and western regions, the forms for filling out an application for this type of insurance differ, as with all types of Prime programs.

This program almost wholly repeats the capabilities of Prime, only for clients abroad. This program is also considered the minimum insurance required under the Affordable Care Act (Zickafoose et al., 2019). Otherwise, the program is also served by active military personnel, activated members of the reserve and guards, and dependents under the sponsorship of the command. This program does not include costs as long as the participant applies to his assigned specialist, who, in turn, gives directions for the provision of specific medical services abroad. Family members to participate in this program must confirm their participation in the Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) and apply only to those medical institutions that are available under this program abroad (Tricare – Health Plans, 2021). It is also necessary to fill out an application to the International SOS service, which will organize meetings with experts and specialists.

Tricare Reserve Select

Members of the Selected Reserve and their families can participate in this plan (Tricare – Health Plans, 2021). However, it should be noted that members are not active military personnel and are not eligible or enrolled in the federal employee health insurance program (Tricare – Health Plans, 2021). It is a premium insurance option, as it allows using the services of Tricare providers without any restrictions. The costs for this plan include both monthly premiums and annual and co-payments when visiting doctors. This program is used only for a minimal circle of people and is not available to everyone. Registration takes place during a face-to-face meeting, and it is not possible to submit an application online.

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Tricare Retired Reserve

This type of program is also premium and is designed for a limited number of possible participants. Eligible for this option are members of the reserve component retirement reserve who are eligible for irregular retirement under 10 USC, Chapter 1223, who are still under the age of 60, and who are not eligible for federal employee health insurance (Tricare-Health Plans, 2021), as well as their family members. Finally, the plan covers individuals whose sponsor was covered by the Tricare pension reserve when he or she died (Tricare – Health Plans, 2021). Otherwise, this program does not differ from Selected Reserve, it also provides access to any type of medical care and charges an insurance fee monthly, annually, and each appointment held.

Tricare for Life

This program has a close relationship with another insurance program, Medicare. This option offers comprehensive Medicare coverage for people eligible for Tricare who have Medicare Part A and B (Tricare – Health Plans, 2021). No enrollment is required if Part A and Part B are confirmed, and the Participant still pays for Part B of Medicare. The difference from Medicare is that it works overseas as well. Monthly payments must be covered by Medicare Part B, which is based on the member’s income. Anyone who can be registered with DEERS can participate in this program: military personnel and members of their families, members of the national guard or reserve and members of their families, survivors, and laureates of the medal of honor. The most important thing about this program is to be eligible and enrolled in Medicare.

Tricare Young Adults

Qualified adult children can purchase this plan after their regular TRICARE coverage ends at age 21 or 23 if they are in college (Tricare – Health Plans, 2021). Up to the age of 26, participation can be confirmed by unmarried young adults, who will be able to receive assistance depending on the chosen insurance mode: select or prime. The choice of option also depends on where the participant of the program lives and the sponsor’s military status, which can be attached to the unique or prime programs without leaving the participant a choice. Finally, a member must not be eligible for any other Tricare coverage option. Expenses include monthly fees that come with a supplement at the time of visit, which also depends on the location of the service and the military sponsor. Participation in other health insurance is not possible. This plan provides a variety of medical and pharmacy benefits for the member and also can register online.

CHAMPVA Supplement Insurance Plan

This insurance plan is designed for veterans and their support and peace of mind. It helps protect against co-insurance, physician bills, hospital costs, pharmacy, and catastrophic costs whenever needed (CHAMPVA Supplement Insurance Plan, n.d.). The plan will pay a share of inpatient and outpatient health care costs after the member completes the CHAMPVA Supplement Insurance Plan (n.d.) deduction. Using this plan does not allow using Tricare, but the participant must be a Medicare member. This plan is suitable for people over 65 years old, spouses or children of those killed in the line of duty, and people with disabilities who died due to disability. The insurance authority itself regulates the final connection to this plan, and a refusal may occur in some cases.

When filing a complaint with Tricare, the participant must have on hand a complete set of documents showing that the Authorized Service Provider has assisted, such as a copy of the supplier’s invoice. Typically, regional contractors and primary health care managers assist participants in drafting complaints and submitting them to the appropriate authorities. The form is available on the website, which must be filled out manually and sent by mail to the appropriate addresses. However, if program members are overseas, then they can file a complaint online. There are different application forms for the East and West regions and the Tricare for Life program.

Workman compensation injuries, illnesses in Texas

Texas is the second-largest state in America and is often renowned for its rules and views on many laws and issues. The Texas Workers’ Compensation Act allows employers to waive workers’ compensation insurance, covering medical costs, physical therapy costs, and lost wages for employees who become ill or injured at work (A Quick Guide to Workers’ Compensation in Texas, 2019). The employer’s voluntary compensation of workers leads to the fact that about 20-30% of workers are left without insurance every year (A Quick Guide to Workers’ Compensation in Texas, 2019). Otherwise, as a rule, employers provide an opportunity for social protection. If a work-related injury occurs, employees reserve the right to sue non-subscribers for damages, therefore (A Quick Guide to Workers’ Compensation in Texas, 2019). However, as a rule, those employers who participate in insurance programs purchase services from private organizations and accompany the injured person until the end of the trial.

In addition to the compensation options mentioned above, workers in Texas have the option of paying employer coverage for social security and, in some instances, lawsuits. In Texas, workers ‘compensation insurance covers medical benefits, income benefits (including temporary benefits, impairment benefits, supplemental benefits, and lifetime income benefits), and death and burial (A Quick Guide to Workers’ Compensation in Texas, 2019). A separate responsibility of the employer is the program of return to work after injury, which imply the preservation of the workplace for the employee until the end of treatment. These programs help to reduce employee turnover, maintain employee engagement, a reputation for satisfaction, and, as a result, efficiency. An understanding of the requirements and benefits of an employer is highly valued by professionals in Texas, as the law reserves the voluntary right of insurance for them.

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The Appeals Process in Texas

The appeal process is possible in the courts of the first instance if the insurance case is lost. Likewise, if the program participant wins the case, the losing party can bring the participant to the appeal. After a judge signs the order, no more than 30 or, in exceptional cases, 90 days must elapse for such an application to be filed in Texas. The grounds for such an appeal are various kinds of errors that a lawyer can identify after the trial. The winning party will usually reject such appeals, but the final decision is always with the judge.


This presentation helps to understand the main programs of Tricare in detail and in nuance required by a healthcare professional. In addition, an alternative is being considered in the form of a CHAMPVA Supplement Insurance Plan, which is mutually exclusive with Tricare. Finally, this paper looks at the highlights of insurance benefits, claims filing, appeals, and benefits for workers in Texas. The study showed that employer insurance for workers is voluntary, so a relatively large percentage of workers are not covered by health insurance. However, most workers in Texas have insurance that covers many possible causes and the corresponding benefits that meet labor protection requirements.


A Quick Guide to Workers’ Compensation in Texas. (2019). Web.

CHAMPVA Supplement Insurance Plan. (n.d.). Web.

Tricare – Health Plans. (2021). Web.

Zickafoose, J. S., Lechner, A., & Williams, T. (2019). TRICARE For Children: Between Medicaid And Marketplace Plans For Comprehensiveness And Cost Sharing. Health Affairs, 38(8), 1366-1376.

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