The Vikings’ excursions which began at the end of the 8th century, in general were directed to areas of northern coast of Western Europe and east coast of England giving rich possibilities for the realization of predatory campaigns and settlements. However, in spite of the fact that most part of the Vikings’ raids received their popularity owing to Frank and English chroniclers, mostly “from the church centers or official reports to the kings or regional authorities”, it is possible to ascertain, that there was another, not less significant, economical direction in Vikings’ campaigns. (“Who Were the Vikings?,” 2000)
specifically for you
for only $16.05 $11/page
The activity of Vikings in Europe had a big importance for understanding the period of Vikings, where their influence over the Western Europe cannot be neglected. Analyzing runic monuments of the Vikings’ epoch, it is possible to see, that the campaigns of the Vikings’ epoch were dangerous, but very profitable direction of the military-trading expeditions. A distinctive feature of such campaigns can be considered their trading nature. Trade promoted an establishment of intercultural contacts and the development of a unique ethno-cultural environment of trade-craft settlements.
The specificity of such campaigns promoted the formation of the legendary image of the Vikings, which was established in epic the Scandinavian tradition. Thus, the epoch of Vikings was of great importance for economic and cultural development of Northern and Northwest Europe as a whole. In that sense, analyzing Vikings’ excursions a new image can be formed, not “the image of Vikings’ as raiders and pillagers but as entrepreneurs, traders, people opening up new avenues of commerce, bringing new materials into Scandinavia, spreading Scandinavian ideas into Europe.” (“Who Were the Vikings?,” 2000)
The medieval society of the Western Europe was rigidly regulated, and had a complex hierarchy. The public consciousness of that epoch in its most simplified kind thought of it as consisting of three categories – clergies, warriors and workers. The first two, in essence, covered the ruling class – feudal lords, spiritual and secular. These categories were the most complicated social formations which were connected in branched out network of economic, political, legal and personal relations, which had a specifically enough public and spiritual interests. Knights were included into the category of “warriors”.
In the developed middle Ages, the status of the knight assumed a noble origin, the inclusion in system of liege-vassal connections and a professional military work. “Chivalrous nobles lived by an ideal that they felt set them in a place above the reach of the rest of medieval society.”(Lawson)
Originally the knights were a secular army the ideals of which in many respects resisted to the official church morals, but gradually the church strengthened its influence on knights, and used it for the protection of its interests more actively. Chivalry including feudal lords of different ranks, from kings and dukes to impoverished knights who became more and more from the 12th century, were an exclusive social caste.
Chivalry which occurred in the middle Ages could not exist without Christian religion as the basic feelings of knights have arisen directly under its beneficial influence and had a great value. Such feelings developed more and more, as a result of which the chivalry occurred, which was loyal to its mission. In general everything, that was required from the knight, quite corresponded to the Christian doctrines.
100% original paper
on any topic
done in as little as
Lawson, R. Chivalry during the Reign of King Edward III
Who Were the Vikings? (2000).