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The Viking Invasions of Europe


This work was written with the aim of studying a selected region in a specific period of time, namely, how the invasion and the settlement of the aggressor changed the region. The work will highlight the period in the history of the Viking invasion of Europe. The argument is that only after a period in which the North Seafarers had necessarily gained the amount of prior environmental knowledge necessary to travel into new seascapes and coastal habitats were the first known Viking raids feasible (Heen-Pettersen, 523). According to Owen (2018), the Vikings’ Age was more than one thousand years ago in history. Although the consensus is that during a Viking era that ranged between about 800 AD and 1100 AD, the Vikings did not have a very lasting impact, as they were capable of assimilating themselves into a local population.

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Viking culture lasted for the art, technology, society, and commerce of all populations that they met. According to Wernick (2017), they began a new and exciting chapter in their history when the Vikings attacked and conquered England, France, and Ireland. Not only does it maintain a solid grip in the Danish psyche to this day, but also the languages of Scotland and northern England still reveal Scandinavian elements. In fact, although they may have been regarded by popular culture as barbaric raiders until recently, they were mainly traders and adventurers who decided to open up a world of new business routes. They found numerous new countries during their summary, but considerable, term of office as an influential early European empire.


On a multitude of fronts, the Vikings achieved significant technological breakthroughs. Longboats, a long warship that could achieve speeds of 18.5 kilometers per hour per day and cross 200 kilometers per day, were under their control. A hard facing ship of the ninth century in Gokstad was the first to be recovered in Europe from royal funerals in the Vikings’ mound, where the clay grounds had remarkably well preserved wood and iron. In 1904, the ship Viking Osberg was found as a place of amusement for the Viking Queen in a burial mound on the Osberg farm in Norway. A copy of the Gokstad ship sailed over the Atlantic in 1893. This not only offered one of the first examples of scientific archeology but also demonstrated how the Vikings were possible to reach Northern America, as proven by the Scandinavian explorer, Helge, in 1961.

The skilled men in the arms-forming and enhancement of weapons could construct elaborate designs for blades, spears, javelins, combat axles, knives, bows, darts, shielding. In Lagoda’s excavation, the remnants of forged produced implements for many diverse uses, the scope of their metal working talents are clearly displayed. The smithy’s instruments included woodworking drills, hammers, a spike manufacturer, shears, shearing sheets, chisels, anvils, tongs, and a drawing panel.

They were very sophisticated technologically for their time in building procedures. The excavations of the Viking town of Jorvik, reconstructed in the 10th century after the Vikings took it in 866 among the ruins of York, gave rise to remains of wooded stoned homes, stores. In comparison with the homes of the upright pillars and wooden timber erected between these structures, after the Vikings had taken over, buildings in York were built prior to the Vikings’ construction Jorvik. Their artisan were extremely talented and able to produce pattern-swept, long-lasting pine swords.

They were attentive colonizers and committed farmers to the territories, which they conquered, and settled, bringing revolutionary energy and farming technologies. Rye, barley, and Emeritus, which were added with nuts, Vikings They cultivated fish, cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and eggs, were highly qualified artisans who could produce a large range of materials of excellent quality. Many archeological sites show they were very proficient in leather, textile dyeing and weaving, and stitching when it comes to apparel.


Some Vikings were pirates and fighters, but most were explorers and merchants. The Vikings engaged in large-scale business and established a trading network that ultimately covers all of contemporary Europe, Russia, North India, and China. The routes to Constantints and Byzantine Empire were the first to take the Volga and Dnieper traffic; the Franks and the Baltics were sold, and the roads to the Far East even opened.

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Modern archaeological digs on the Bjorca Island called Birka in the 9th Century show the richness of the Viking archeology and of the widespread commerce engaged in by the Vikings. In 1872, the Hjalmar Stolpe, who methodically discovered 1100 funeral luminaries for more than 20 years, started to trade in the Franks, the Baltic States, and the Byzantine Empire. Currency droves from Scandinavia’s Ninth-century dirhams demonstrate the extense of Viking trading with the Middle East throughout the Volga.

In the Viking Age, the Northern European economy became a commercial market economy from a prestigious goods trading system. According to Brooks (2020), “Scandinavian tribesmen had long traded amber with both other Germanic tribes and even with the Romans directly during the imperial period” (p.). While the Viking conquests consisted of southern attacks on metal riches, which have been converted into ornamental status goods, the Vikings finally began to convert market cities and mint richness into currency. This led to the establishment in the “famous world” of worldwide marketplaces and trade in the era.

Many Viking villages, like Staraja Ladoga, focused primarily on trade and crafts. The business with the East left Ladoga and its surroundings the earliest discovery of silver coins. In the tale of a large interaction with Scandinavia as well as with Central Europe, one item in particular from Ladoga recounts. The unusual artifact is a cast mold that is found in a horizon layer of chalkstone and on either side. The concavity exhibits a pattern consisting of two different pendants: one of the pelta and one of the cruciform triangles.


However, the Vikings were not only raids; they tried to explore and establish down in regions which, upon their arrival in Iceland were often totally deserted. In actually going where nobody has been before, they look brave. They were the finest navigators in history, yet at times their journeys led them to form places totally unknown to Europeans. A lot of their explorations needed daring and forethought; in the early eleventh century, Vikings had been the first Europeans to arrive in North America, with a party of Icelandic Vikings coming to Newfoundland, today in Canada. Nevertheless, an attempt to colonize could not be achieved due to a war between the Vikings and their indigenous peoples and the people of the American countries were spared for around five centuries the presence of further European immigrants.


While the Vikings are important for several reasons – extending medieval commerce, colonizing other regions, creating the first Delegation with North America, and setting up the first Russian States. Their attacks and spread were one of the most spectacular and abrupt events on earth. Each of its populations across Europe and Scandinavia and the cultures formed in Iceland and Greenland has enjoyed enduring art, technology, and trade. There is still an agreement that the Vikings’ impact throughout the Medieval Era was not very durable, lasting from 800 AD to 1100 AD.

In the first place, they made their presence felt by a series of invasions by Britain, Ireland, the Carolingian Empire, and the Byzantine Empire. However, they created a lasting effect on the merchant’s acumen, technology, art, and religious views. They could create a vast trading network covering contemporary Europe in their knowledge of naval technology, Russia, the Middle East, North India, and perhaps China. They were the first trading pioneers along the Volga and the Dnieper River. They opened the way for Constantinople and the Byzantine civilization. It would also make it possible for explorers to find the Faeroes in the year 874, Iceland in the year 882, Greenland in the year 1000, and Vinland and Spitzbergen in the North.

They were the masters of metalworking, forging weapons, and ornamentation, who made some of the best of the day’s swords, spears, javelins, axes, knives, arrows, arrows, and armor. The art they made was one of the greatest of the day. They used their know-how in clothing, leatherwork, joy, sculpting. The sagas of Iceland are also regarded to be their most exquisite literary achievement; there was no civilization that met the Vikings. Scandinavia still contains remnants of the dialects of Scotland and North England, and in the Danish consciousness, the notion of the Vikings remains strong.

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Works Cited

Brooks, Christopher. “Early Medieval Europe.” Western Civilization: A Concise History, 2020.

Heen-Pettersen, Aina Margrethe. “The earliest wave of Viking activity? The Norwegian evidence revisited.” European Journal of Archaeology 22.4 (2019): 523-541.

Owen, Ruth. The Life of a Viking Warrior. Weigl Publishers, 2018.

Wernick, Robert. The Vikings: Conquering England, France, and Ireland. New Word City, 2017.

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