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Water Quality and Supply

The problem of lack of access to improved drinking water is one of the most significant public health issues in developing countries nowadays. Every year people in developing countries die because of the lack of access to basic sanitation, personal hygiene, and clean drinking water. There are water missions that support people in overcoming these challenges, their work is rather useful but still, the problem of access to potable water remains the issue of the day for many countries. Developed countries don’t suffer the same questions; their water is less contaminated, and it is not full of bacteria. However, in leading countries, some water supply problems may occur but the governments of these countries resolve the issues urgently. Thus, the issue of access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation in developed countries is less vexed (Detels, Gulliford, Abdool Karim & Tan, 2015). For example, a morning shower in the United States takes as much water as people take during the day in developing countries.

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Water-associated diseases kill more than 3 million people, especially children, per year in developing countries (Gray, 2008). In recent years, thanks to international support, the number of victims has decreased considerably. International missions work on providing adequate water supply in these countries. There are various efficient global programs, such as UN-Water, The Water Project, ACP-EU Water Facility. The year 2008 was the international year of sanitation; it was aimed at the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target; 2,5 billion people have lack access to improved sanitation and 1,2 billion have no access at all.

International rights to water and sanitation should be provided in the countries of South-eastern and Eastern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Developing countries should make some vital changes in their policy to reduce the risks, connected with drinking water access and sanitation. The first step to the active solution of water access issues is the implementation of the policy for improving water services. Developing countries should retain a healthy water supply through various policy measures, they are the following: providing the pre-treatment of industrial waste, allocation of industrial facilities out of town, consistent political management on water discharge, reducing the concentration of contaminants, optimization of water-based industrial operations.

Before trying to solve the water-related problems, one should clearly understand what factors influence water scarcity. Socio-ecological factors influence educational interventions and solutions to water-related problems significantly. There are the following stages of the solution of this issue: various intervention programs should be worked out and implemented, according to some social peculiarities of the population, formal education, especially health education in some areas should be improved, the supervision of ecological sanitation should be provided. It is obvious that there are no results without some sanitation facilities or water supply. But people, inhabiting developing countries should know how to use them correctly. Thus, educational interventions are aimed at the achievement of this goal. International organizations should not only ensure these people with all needed, but they should teach them to use all they have effectively to change the ecological situation in their countries. It is evident that low educational progress is directly related to environmental degradation and disregard of hygiene. As practice shows, people with a lack of education are more inclined to break the rules of personal hygiene and sanitation. Only the interaction of all the factors, influencing the environment in developing countries can reduce the risks of water-related diseases and deaths (World Health Organization, 2014).

The popularity of recreational sports and swimming caused the need for profound research of the risks and dangers surrounding water supply and water quality. People that use recreational water are in danger of severe or even fatal diseases. Also, various infections may cause serious consequences. Microbial hazards and pathogenic micro-organisms are the risks of sports that demand close contact with recreational water. The most dangerous kinds of sports are surfing, windsurfing, and scuba diving. So, people should choose whether they consider recreational water a serious threat to their health or just a medium for relaxation and rest. It is evident that some of the recreational sports are good physical exercises necessary for our health. One should weigh the benefits and the drawbacks of this pastime carefully. In order to reduce the risk in water recreation, people should follow some rules: boating only in lifejackets, watching the broadcasting of storm warnings, wearing protective clothing, being attentive to different dangerous signs on the beaches, avoiding the infected regions, using antimalarial therapy. One man in California, went camping with his children. There they used unboiled water from a pond near the toilet. He also used water from the lake where he was fishing. They ate contaminated fish from this lake. His children did not catch any disease after the camping, but he was infected. It is also possible that some people will develop illnesses and others will not.

The most frequent users of coastal recreational water are children, students, tourists, sportsmen, and hotel guests. Children are more susceptible to hazards than others. Most often children are the violators of the rules of bathing in ponds. Thus they can injure not only themselves but other people. Besides, they are most inclined to spend a lot of time in the recreational water, so they risk swallowing water. Elder and disabled people may not have enough strength and skill to deal with hazards in recreational waters. People with weakened immune systems are most susceptible to pathogens that are found in this environment. The danger is great for all persons equally; however, young people are more often interested in recreational sports and, hence, they are most susceptible to various diseases (Pond, 2005).

There are some measures and solutions for reducing or even eliminating the problem of various health risks surrounding water supply and water quality. Of course, beach cleaning, warning signs on the beach, litter bins, some prohibiting regulations, lifeguarding, and appropriate inspection of the beaches should be provided. But all these factors do not guarantee safe swimming. There are also some personal rules for the recreation water users. Having outdoor activities people should limit time in the midday sun, wear sunscreens, protective clothing, and use a shade. The main problem on the way to the solution of environmental issues is a violation of generally accepted rules. Water pollution remains one of the most significant problems for modern society. Lack of clean drinking and recreational water causes human losses every day. There are a lot of international organizations trying to contribute to overcoming these issues. Thus, there is noticeable progress in the solution of water supply challenges. People all over the world suffer from the lack of water and water contamination. Thus, only ordinary interaction and mutual aid can save billions of lives. One person can make a difference.

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Reference

Detels, R., Gulliford, M., Abdool Karim, Q., & Tan, C. (2015). Oxford textbook of global public health.Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gray, N. (2008). Drinking water quality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pond, K. (2005). Water recreation and disease. Geneva: World Health Organization.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2014). Water sanitation health. Web.

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