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Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations

The historical birth of logistics management and the progress to its comprehensive frameworks has given transport the likely boost in its development. Thus, the links that exist has made them inseparable with very thin separation lines to distinguish their individual advancements. Tseng, Taylor & Yue (2005) explain that as high as a third of transport cost allocations go to logistics which considerably makes it significantly influential element throughout the transport cycle (1658). A mutual relationship may seem to exist between the two in that logistics and transportation share influencing factors in how they experience growth in their various operational components (Pricewaterhousecoopers, 2010).

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Logistics has experienced growth in the following aspects (in relation to transport): service delivery that support material transit; information technology for monitoring operations and aid in generating concepts and infrastructure constituents which consist of linkage structures that complete the transport outfit. Conceptualizing logistics and transport needs a holistic understanding of information generated, both qualitative and quantitative. Due to the close nexus between the two sectors, spectra of issues to be studied in either or both sectors are better handled in their integrated form than in separate entities. Some of the scholarly writings have applied quantitative approaches in addressing deficiencies in the understanding the said nexus (Creswell, 2008) (99). Tseng, Taylor & Yue (2005) argue that transport of merchandise in the business is part of logistics; for instance in 1982 on aggregate on the transportation cost had a market income of 6.5% while logistics cost was at 44% (1661). In addition, transportation forms the largest bulk of logistics costs of up to 29.4% in terms of the various transportation ways, transit routes, cargo shipped, pallets, ports of entry, manpower, and time span in a about 1:3 ratio for transport and logistics costs (1661). On this ground, those planning and implementing logistics need to make it imperative to comprehend the transportation components and their course of operations. The generic forms of logistics and transportation management in different industries may converge but at very fine details in the way operations are specialized vary widely (Stock & Lambert, n.d.). The differences may further widen when operations are considered based on geographical coverage at global, regional or local level. As much as these differences are insisted (as influenced the individual industry operations) the connections that exist between logistics and transportation management can be analyzed within their right respects.

The large role of transport is to offer movement services from one location to a destined transit destination. The diversity and quantity of products shipped will vary on client order size; frequency of the trips will also differ on traffic flow and the level of activities will depend on the sophistication of the service provider. In this sense results from transport activities have bearing on sister logistics management as well as determining market objectives set. Tseng, Taylor & Yue (2005) argue that with reduced traffic volume in transport activities translate to low trade sales (1661). Thus, transport has a significant stake in the influencing volume of sales made. For instance, in situation where a trader wishes to have increased sales, then the transport efficiency is a considerable function. A reliable transport function ensures more items reach destination timely and the links between the source and destination work properly for the consumer to satisfy wants with reduced inconveniences. Transport should be on constant improvement to suit current market systems; the transporter keeps abreast of the market functions and devices better strategies that will work hand in hand. The cradle of logistics roots from the disciplined military force later extended its function into the business world as a tradeoff between the quantity and distance covered to deliver consignment.

The functions of logistics in distribution were rather tailored to suit business application while logistics management models were drawn from military functions. The objectives of logistics management were more driven by solving of the problem in the demand-supply chain; need to address the increased volume of trade and to bring the product closer to the consumer. However, the development of logistics management has rather become complex and a contrast from the initial models. Sophistication of the models has led to significant divergence and contrast from the military models.

Distribution firms have taken over the roles of getting products from the manufacturer to the destined consumer, making the distribution functions more specialized than before. Inducing quality in delivery services has led to sophistication in this specialization. Reverse logistics plays a very important role in boosting operations in meeting customer’s needs and thus drives efficiency in resource recycling. Logistics has thus joined the ‘greening’ campaign and resources that rather would be considered in the waste category are getting alternative functional role. Recycling is a function of environment care in the growing scarcity of resources. Reverse logistics is providing an alternative in minimizing exploitation of more resources by finding meaningful use to those that have undergone primary utilization. Environment policies targeting the world trade systems have led to growth and sophistication in the reverse logistics. The green campaign has been made more formidable by the adoption of clean production in the industrial sector.

The quest for the mark of quality in service delivery as well as accreditation is a reflection of the significance of qualitative approaches as gateway to professional solutions (Creswell, 2008)(98) The ISO 14000 benchmarks for global certification have leveled the playing field and basis for regulating operations for the players. Maritime logistics have provided alternative cost effective services for long distance hauling. Maritime customer satisfaction is shifting from just shipping cost to monitoring and tracing real-time information and accuracy in detailing operations regarding the shipping. Customer targeted tend to be more specialized with the items to be hauled being grains and oil. Other shipments are also picking up with development of shipment container to suit the transportation purpose. Contrast to the maritime services, airfreight functions tend to be faster. It is characterized with plane operation and delivery functions over long distances with less time consumed as flight are less affected by ground landforms. Flight freights are showing growth tendencies with future growth projected to be linked to cooperation with other transport modes (Tseng, Taylor & Yue, 2005) (1665).

Land logistics extend deliveries services connected to sea and air transport such that at the port of entry act as pick and drop points for the land transport. Land logistics modes tend to complement each other more conveniently than other logistics type. Land logistics consists of railway operations with high carrying capacity at relatively less energy requirements. Road freight transport tend to require cheaper investment, higher destination accessibility and their services are more available while pipeline system are providing alternative delivery channels for fluids with continuous conveyance, competitive costs and high capacity. Express deliveries are meant to provide fastest means and doorstep services. Future development in thin express deliveries targets lightweight products, deeper penetration to remote locations as well as increased frequency of delivery along routes. E-commerce logistics is electronic driven; meant to cut down paperwork as well as warehousing needs. City logistics are meant to counter the urban traffics and other bustles of town life: traffic congestion, environment impacts and low transport efficiency.

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Defining clear purpose statement requires clear understanding of the central issues at hand (Creswell, 2008) (111). Logistics and transport management is experiencing increased activities; these have been coupled with population rise and expanding economies. Allied sector policies (such as environment) have put pressure on streamlining practices to suit sustainable development. Higher affinity for raw resources to sustain growth in industries is causing more strain to their natural sources. Higher inputs translate to higher pollution and increased chances of waste produced. Although clean productivity advocates for zero emission and waste prevention, to some sector players this is still a fallacy. Fossil fuel use has a significant proportion for carbon emitted in to the atmosphere. Urban smog as well as lower stratospheric ozone in urban is a consequent of pollution resulting from inefficient and unhealthy industrial processes.

Global warming is heading to irreversible stages. Domestication of environmental frameworks is yet to bear significant reversal intervention results. Transportation is indeed a leading contributor to the mess. The future advancement within the industry should factor in how to invest in ‘cleaner’ operations as well as support allied sectors in combating climate change menace. Upcoming projects in reverse logistics have had remarked results. Trans-boundary shipment of hazardous waste has however been counter-productive and is under heavy criticism (especially from environmental quarters) as some developed states have taken earliest opportunity to dump waste in least developed countries. International environmental frameworks are attaching stricter guidelines in pursuit of environmental care for the signatory parties. Transportation role of moving load from one point to a destination may be simplified explanation to its definition since the growth tendencies are not only making different forms of transport dissimilar but also redefining their functions (Atlantic Council of the United States, 2008).

Efficiency and efficacy compatibility among the different transportation classifications are becoming divergent. With this kind of departures, the quantitative and qualitative measures used applied in measuring activity and progress have tended to differ widely. According to Creswell, (2008) mixed model is applicable for the purpose statement (120). Mixed model blends qualitatively and quantitatively generated information (Creswell, 2008) (112-116). So do their results. However, customer satisfaction is the converging point among the different transport and logistics forms. Mixed methods should be applied to measure quality and quantity of services delivered. The methods should also be used to assess the progress achieved through government’s role in providing friendly environment for operators; influencing growth in the global transport; revolutionizing operation activities and fostering of partnership links among players.

References

Atlantic Council of the United States. (2008). US-China cooperation on clean and efficient Transportation. CIAO. Web.

Creswell, J. (2008). Research Design: Qualitative & Quantitative Approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication, Inc. Pricewaterhousecoopers. (2010). Transportation and logistics. Web.

Stock, J. & Lambert, D. (n.d.). Strategic Logistic management. Web.

Tseng, Y. Taylor, M.A.P. & Yue, W. L. (2005). The Role of Transportation in Logistics Chain. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, Web.

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