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Advertising of Chocolate Using TV as a Media Tool in the UK


TV medium is one of the most popular and effective media for advertising today. Advertising of chocolate is based on a unique tastes and demands of consumers and requires messages and images to attract potential target audience. The target audience for this product is women between 20-40 years. Selection of messages and techniques will be based on the main principles of advertising. It is assumed that consumption of food and chocolate is not a passive, costless activity. Consumers do not receive their products and services passively or without considerable effort. They make purchase decisions and expend energies, time, and money for both purchase and use of products. Consumers would like to do so conveniently. Taste pervades every social and income stratum, and affects the type and quality of goods that will be purchased. Consumers express their personalities and their taste through the symbols with which they are associated, such as houses, furniture, furnishings, clothing, and automobiles. Since consumers are often other-directed, they are concerned with what other group members think of them and their taste. In the aggregate, it seems that taste is improving (Brassington and Pettitt, 2003).

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The selected target audience is characterized by independent thinking and unique lifestyles. Modern women follow fashion trends and prefer unique image of products. Selection of the TV channels is based on the following criteria. Fashions, therefore, are styles that are popular as the mode during a given time period. They exhibit a tendency toward constant change. To be fashionable, women must make changes of the right kind at the right time. Thus, it is consumer behavior that determines whether a style is a fashion. Their greatest impact is to be found in those areas that are most visible, such as ladies’ clothing. Since fashions are externally visible, they are vehicles for conspicuous consumption. They have much meaning for the purchase and consumption behavior of women. Through fashions, women can exhibit conspicuously the life style that their husband can afford. Women are the vehicles for displaying their mate’s purchasing power. Then the choices are discovered by the lower strata and made fashionable by them. Fashions begin among the minority, and are discovered and ultimately labeled fashions by reaching a mass audience. The TV channels used for advertising campaign Channel 4 and ITV1. It is assumed that both fads and fashions, therefore, are part of social change and encompass influence, diffusion, acceptance, rejection, and leadership. A function of fashion is to display social assent or social status. This forces the members of higher-status groups to search for replacements. As a result, consumer purchases of fashion items become a never-ending searching process (Schultz and Kitchen 2001).

Selection of time and program will be based on rational choice aimed to attract millions of women and “inform” them about the new product. For channel 4, the main programs will be The Simpsons (18:00), Hollycaks (18:30), How to Look Good Naked (20:00), Country House Rescue (21:99) and Men Hunters (22:00). During Saturdays and Sundays, Channels 4 News will be used as the main programs for ads. For Channel ITV1, the main programs will be London Tonight (18:00), Emmerdale (19:00), Who Wants to be a Millionaire (20:00), Sleep Walkers (21:00), On Sunday, the programs will be the Royal (20:00) and ITC News and Weather (18;15 and 23:00). It is assumed that leisure, a phenomenon of our age of relative plenty, is not an insignificant, peripheral, or extracurricular facet of our life style. It both results from, and influences, social, economic, and technological forces (Channel 4. Home Page. 2008; ITV 1 Home Page 2008). Mass leisure affects the values of our society and hence market opportunitiesIt is useful to delineate two dimensions of time, discretionary time (time available for use at an individual’s own discretion) and essential time (time required for activities necessary for the maintenance of life). The latter (essential time) includes both productive time in an economic sense and productive time spent in a noneconomic but necessary way. In reality consumers are acquiring two new freedoms, discretionary time and discretionary mobility. The focus of the leisure class is not only the quantity but also the quality of consumption. For the upper class it is not only wealth but also evidence of wealth that is important. Titles, degrees, and insignia develop into a social class system related to leisure. Quasi-artistic and scholarly pursuits take on significance, and it is the “serviceable evidence of an unproductive expenditure of time that holds place as a conventional accomplishment of members of the leisure class (Baack, 2002).

The costs of advertising in Channels 4 and ITV1 do not differ greatly. Channel 4 sells 60-second ad spots for £2 000-2500. ITV1 sells its time (60-second ad spots) for £2 000. On Channel 4, a weak of advertising will cost – £77500. It involves 5 working days (5 times during evening hours) and Saturday and Sunday (3 times a day). If we assume that the average price is £2500 per ad it will costs £77500. For Channel ITV1, advertising per weak will cost £64 000 per weak (for £2000 per ad). The ads will be demonstrated 4 times during working days and 12 times during holidays. This selection is based on the idea that convenience, like leisure, is time-related, but as a marketing factor it involves more than time. Many types of convenience are built into products, including form, time, place, packaging, quantity, combination, automatic operations, selection, credit, and readiness. Other types of convenience involve access and useThis social circulation of individuals affects the character and personality of consumers and consumption behavior. Mobile consumers tend to become less rigid, more versatile, adaptable, open-minded. A disintegration of conventional actions, preferences, and choices occurs. This is reflected in the acceptance of new products, processes, and services. Fashion is concerned with both novelty, its acceptance and satisfaction, and familiarity and its acceptance and rejection. Some new items become popular very quickly and are deemed fashionable. Others die out rapidly, while others age slowly. The expected audience for Channel 4 is 300, 000 women and 250, 000 women for ITV1 (see Appendix 1,2,). New fashions, therefore, are in the making for a considerable period of time before they invade a general market successfully and become established fashions. They grow and eventually fade out or decline rapidly (Pickton and Broderick 2000). Fashions trickle down from “higher” to “lower” consumer categories – from innovators to early adopters to the early majority to the late majority, and finally to the late adopter. The fashion cycle results from a network of interaction between stylists, producers, middlemen, and consumers (Kitchen, 1999),


In sum, it is important to remember that women consumers are not merely blind conformists, followers, and emulators with homogenized tastes. Besides being willing to emulate, they are also anxious to differentiate. They are discriminating in the kinds and types of purchase they make. They tend to express themselves and to emphasize their own individuality. As disposable income increases, and discretionary buying power is available to a broader consumer base, the opportunity for self-expression and individual differentiation will increase. This will be directly reflected in the design and manufacture of products.


Brassington, F. and Pettitt, S. 2003, Principles of Marketing, Financial Times Management.

Baack, D. 2002, Integrated Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications, rentice Hall/Pearson Education: Upper Saddle River, NJ.

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Channel 4. Home Page. 2008. Web.

Kitchen, P.J. 1999, Marketing Communications: Principles And Practice, 1International homson Business Press: London.

Pickton, D. and Broderick, A. 2000, Integrated Marketing Communications, Pearson ducation Limited: Essex.

Schultz, D.E. and Kitchen, P.J. 2001, Communicating Globally: an Integrated Marketing approach, Palgrave-Macmillan: London.

ITV1 Home Page. 2008.

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