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African History and Cultural Heritage

The cultural similarities shared by the ancient civilizations in Egypt and Nubia

There is reason to draw a parallel between the two ancient civilizations since, according to the study, they have the same ancestor, as a result of which the cultural features unite them. Cultural similarity and continuity can be observed in cultural customs, material artifacts, and people’s messages. The commitment to similar cultural activities can be traced in socio-historical management and record-keeping of reigns as dynastic periods. The concept of spirituality, according to which each village or town had its deity, indicates the similarity of the cultures of ancient civilizations (Nobles, 1996). Special funeral rituals reflecting a high level of symbolism and deep philosophical reflections on life and the afterlife were similar as it was customary to bury personal belongings with the dead in both cultures.

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The racial characteristics of the Ancient Egyptians as a subject of debate among Enlightenment historians and philosophers

The racial characteristics of the Ancient Egyptians were a subject of debate among Enlightenment historians and philosophers because the history has been interpreted according to the changing status of blacks. A persistent historical misconception is that blacks did not have any critical civilizations and did not significantly contribute to world culture (Foster, 1974). Until recently, African history was written as part of the African slave trade and European imperial expansion in the nineteenth century. However, historical controversy continues to focus on the ethnicity of the ancient Egyptians, who created one of the first civilizations in the world. This question is relevant to the nature of race relations at specific points in history.

Significant civilizations which developed in West and Central Africa between 200 B.C. and 1600 A.D.

The three prominent black civilizations, and later the kingdoms that developed in West Africa, were Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. The minor kingdoms consisted of the Yoruba False, Benim, and Oyo states and the Akan states of the Ashanti people (Walton, 1971). Ghana was the first West African kingdom to emerge; records indicate that Ghana was a highly organized state with a free political structure, headed by a king who demanded only loyalty and various tributes. Kanem and Bornu are the principal black civilizations and kingdoms of Central Africa. They arose around Lake Chad and were soon heavily influenced by Muslim ideas.

Life in the medieval empire of Ghana, according to A.J.H. Goodwin

Ghana was the first of the West African kingdoms to emerge. The ancestors of this civilization were the Ancient Egyptians, who showed the ability to organize and create large states and civilizations to build cities and develop great markets. Gold appears to have been the leading trade item and the main symbol of wealth, but the kingdom lacked salt, necessary for people in the equatorial climate. Thus, the exchange for salt began with the nomadic Arabs; later, the Arabs, wanting more gold, opened up permanent trade routes (Goodwin, 1957). As for religion, paganism was replaced by Islam; after one of the kings adopted this religion and made pilgrimages, the confession of Ghana can be considered predominantly Islamist.

The importance history of African civilizations for African Americans and other people of the African Diaspora

African Americans have been stripped of their history for a long time; the revolution in the study of a native black African civilization happened relatively recently. It is of great importance to African Americans and people of the African Diaspora around the world to this day. Group unity and identity have been destroyed over the years with the aim of enslavement (Hilliard III, 1992). The research debate has raised important questions that will help nationalities learn about their roots and ancestors. This will provide an opportunity to look at the situation from the outside and use the past as a more durable building material for the future.


Foster, H. J. (1974). The Ethnicity of the Ancient Egyptians. Journal of Black Studies, 5(2), 175–191.

Goodwin, A. J. H. (1957). The Medieval Empire of Ghana. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 12(47), 108–112.

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Hilliard III, A. G. (1992). The meaning of KMT (Ancient Egyptian) history for contemporary African American experience. Phylon (1960-2002), 49(1-2), 10–22. doi:10.2307/3132613

Nobles, V. L. (1996). Nubia and Egypt: Is it Ella or a copy? Journal of Black Studies, 26(4), 431–446.

Walton, Jr. H. (1971). Toward a theory of Black African Civilizations: The problem of authenticity. Journal of Black Studies, 1(4), 477–487.

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