In the wake of increasing international concern on the prevalence of lifestyle conditions, researchers have shown relentless efforts to establish the causes and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. This essay seeks to establish various factors that a researcher must consider during the selection of existing study instruments.
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Factors Considered in the Selection of the Questionnaire Method as a Research Instrument
A researcher must ensure that the objectives of the study are clearly defined before the commencement of the research. Issues that pertain to the research must feature in the questionnaire. This strategy will ensure relevancy and preciseness (Sugiyono, 2008). The questionnaire ought to be simple and easy to read.
Another factor that should be considered is time availability. The instrument in question should not make the research cumbersome. Instead, it should ensure relevant information is captured in time. Adequate time for designing, piloting, monitoring, and evaluating of the instrument is an important aspect of selection.
Financial factors are crucial elements of a research instrument. Digital qualitative instruments that are mostly used in online researches are more expensive when compared to in-person methods. The plan is to operate within a manageable budget that does not escalate functional costs.
Lastly, most researchers ensure that the instruments of choice are reliable and valid. This situation maintains accurate and consistent results when such an instrument is used repeatedly in various studies.
Locating an Existing Questionnaire
Most researchers are able to locate exiting questionnaire through a review of existing literatures such as books, journals, and periodicals among others (Sugiyono, 2008). A researcher can also seek assistance from research experts who have conducted similar studies. They can facilitate the location of a relevant questionnaire for the prospective study (Sugiyono, 2008).
Search and Location of Questionnaire Instrument to be used
Effective research on the Alzheimer’s disease will involve location of the questionnaire using existing literatures on various studies that have been conducted to survey the malady. Examples of such literatures include a study that was conducted by Evans (1990) to estimate the prevalence of the Alzheimer’s disease in the USA. Information on the diagnosis and effects will be obtained from Cavanaugh and Blanchard-Fields’s (2002) research on the Alzheimer’s disease. These literature works will elaborate on demography, prevalence, and symptoms of the Alzheimer’s disease.
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Level of Measurement of the Questionnaire to be used
The measurement of the questionnaire will be based on reliability and validity. The validity of the instrument will be measured using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation. On the other hand, its reliability will be measured using the Cronbach’s Alpha technique (Cooper & Emory, 2002).
Type of Scale to be implemented for the Instrument
A five-point Likert scale whereby the awareness scores of the Alzheimer’s disease will be marked as ‘1’ to represent “highly aware of the disease”, ‘2’ for “slightly aware of the disease”, ‘3’ for “aware of the disease on average”, and ‘4’ for “not aware of the disease” (Sugiyono, 2008).
Data Collection Procedures to be implemented during the Study
To ensure that ethical standards are met, a pre-visit will be conducted to ensure familiarity with the area of study. Permission will also be requested from the relevant school and administrative authorities to ensure security (Sugiyono, 2008). Questionnaires will be distributed randomly to the various respondents in public places, hospitals, dispensaries, visiting caretakers at homes, and emailing the respondents who will have limited time for face-to-face conversations (Sugiyono, 2008).
The various extraneous variables that will affect the study include provision of wrong information by respondents concerning poor diets and better lifestyle among others. The variables will be controlled by creating a constant to measure the confounding factors.
Questionnaires will be used for data collection. The structure of the questionnaire will comprise personal information of the respondent. It will also contain both closed and open-ended questions. Multiple-choice questions will also be included. The respondents will understand the questions easier since they will be written in simple English (Cooper & Emory, 2002).
Validity and Reliability
The Pearson Moment Correlation has been used to test for validity of the existing questionnaire. The instrument was rated above 0.5 marks. Thus, a 0.5 R-value was set as a mark for validity. The result was a 0.62 on average. This value was above the mark; hence, the instrument was valid (Cooper & Emory, 2002).
The reliability of the instrument was measured using the Cronbach’s Alpha at 0.5. The positive correlation value-r and Cronbach’s Alpha were above the 0.5 cut point. Therefore, the instrument was reliable. In summary, both the validity and reliability tests of the instrument were positive; hence, it was recommended for research (Cooper & Emory, 2002).
Table1: Information on Validity and Reliability test of the questionnaire
|No.||Variables||Total correlation||Cronbach’s α||Illustration|
| ||Awareness of life style issues (x)||0.682||Reliable|
|Lack of exercise |
| ||Progress of Alzheimer’s disease (y)||0.644||Reliable|
Plans for testing validity and reliability for testing a generate questionnaire
A pilot study will be carried out two months before the actual day of the study to ensure that validity and reliability of the generated questionnaire is tested and recommended for the study.
Data collection procedures using the generated questionnaire
The questionnaires will be distributed to selected respondents by means of systematic random sampling technique. Two assistants who will simultaneously distribute the questionnaires to the respondents will accompany the researcher to save time. The questionnaires will then be collected from the respondents on the agreed day and time (Sugiyono, 2008).
Cavanaugh, J., & Blanchard-Fields, F. (2011). Adult Development and Aging. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Cooper, D., & Emory, D. (2002). Business Research Methods. Chicago: Richard D. Irwin.
Evans, D. (1990). Estimated prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in the United States. The Milbank Quarterly, 68(2), 267-289.
Sugiyono, J. (2008). Statistical for Research. Bandung, Indonesia: Alfabeta Press.