Water Source Heat Pumps and Fan Coil Unit Systems
A water source heat pump is comprised of the compressor, 4-Way reversing valve, refrigerant-water heat exchanger, thermal expansion device, coil, and fan. WSHP systems are highly efficient, robust, and quiet. A WSHP system lowers overall building energy consumption by 8% when compared to an air-cooled chiller system and 20% in comparison to a water-cooled chiller system (Jouhara and Yang 85). WSHPs are advantageous in that they are less costly, easy to install, and do not require insulation. A fan coil unit (FCU) is defined as a system that circulates air over a cooling or heating coil by drawing it into the device and blowing it over it. The most significant advantage of FCUs is the high degree of space segmentation and rearrangement flexibility.
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The Chiller and Air Handling Unit
AHUs and FCUs are just boxes with fans that pull in air from the building, pass it overheating or cooling coils, and then recirculate it back into the building to continue the cycle. When trying to boost chiller efficiency, it’s critical to take a systems approach. If one has a chiller, they may measure how efficient it is in cooling by looking at its coefficient of performance (COP) or energy efficiency ratio (EER). HVAC systems typically use 70 percent of the energy in a base building, with chillers using 25 to 35 percent of that energy (Deshmukh et al. 308). This implies that HVAC systems are crucial for energy management. As a result, chiller efficiency and HVAC system functionality are critical to obtaining high performance. Water-cooled chillers are beneficial through their long lifespan, safety, and quiet operation.
Cooling Tower and Pumps
The cooling tower and pumps work together to remove heat from a system. Therefore, they serve the same purpose as a condenser in a home system. For optimum operation, the pump is expanded while the control valve remains closed. This condition implies system inefficiency. The quantity of heat provided to the condenser loop and the volume of water fed to the tower contribute to the cooling tower’s efficiency. Lack of proper maintenance may cause the water temperature to rise, costing consumers up to 3.5 percent extra electricity costs for every degree Fahrenheit gained (Stopps and Touchie 13). The main advantages of this system are its long life, simple design, fast and effective cooling. However, if one of the constituent components fails, the whole system would not operate efficiently.
Heating is one of the crucial steps in an HVAC system, which is accomplished by a combination of elements such as the condenser, compressor, expansion valve, and evaporator. Heat pumps use a distinctive refrigerant that is evaporated into steam by the heat source (low pressure, cold gas), then compressed by an electrically powered compressor. Zoned heating improves energy efficiency even further in central heating systems (Zhuang et al. 157). Zoned heating is similar to non-central heating systems in that it offers more precise control of the amount of heat applied, thereby contributing to an efficient heating process. To keep the temperature where it should be, a good, preferable centralized, control system is needed. The Con Edison’s steam power plant is a significant part of HVAC in the U.S.
Facility Management: HVAC Perspective
The primary goal of HVAC service providers is to keep all HVAC devices and components, such as pumps, chillers, boilers, and fans, in good working order so that the entire system may function properly. FM services implement preventative maintenance programs, such as water testing and treatment, and air filter monitoring to help reduce the risk of poor air quality. Due to stratification and the production of pollutant pockets, as well as reacting to design levels that exceed real-time circumstances, the set points in VAV systems are frequently misread by the sensors (Guo et al. 110). ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010, Ventilation for Optimal Indoor Air Quality, and its associated addenda form the national consensus guideline for outside air ventilation (Cory et al. 71). Among other things, several state codes include minimum energy efficiency criteria and ventilation management.
Cory Duggin PE, B. E. M. P., Carmine Rende Jr, and Alyssa Faircloth. “Energy and IEQ Innovation Drive Adaptive Reuse Design.” ASHRAE Journal 63.8 (2021): 70-72.
Deshmukh, Suhrid, Leon Glicksman, and Leslie Norford. “Case Study Results: Fault Detection in Air-Handling Units in Buildings.” Advances in Building Energy Research 14.3 (2018): 305-321.
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Guo, Zhanjun, et al. “Optimal modification of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system performances in residential buildings using the integration of metaheuristic optimization and neural computing.” Energy and Buildings 214 (2020): 109-166.
Jouhara, Hussam, and Junjing Yang. “Energy Efficient HVAC Systems.” Energy and Buildings 179 (2018): 83-85.
Stopps, Helen, and Marianne F. Touchie. “Managing Thermal Comfort in Contemporary High-Rise Residential Buildings: Using Smart Thermostats and Surveys to Identify Energy Efficiency and Comfort Opportunities.” Building and Environment 173 (2020): 10-15.
Zhuang, Luping, Xi Chen, and Xiaohong Guan. “A Decentralized Method for Energy Conservation of an HVAC System.” Building Simulation 13.1 (2019): 155-170.