Analysis of the External and Internal Constituents of the Pantheon of Rome


Roman culture, especially the culture of construction, inspired and set standards for European architecture for many hundreds of years to come. One of the most striking examples of the embodiment of the ideas of the Roman architectural school is the Pantheon of Rome. According to Muench, “the Pantheon is one of the most famous sights in Italy as it is significant for being one of the most well-preserved ancient structures existing in present day.”

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Being initially built during the existence of the Roman Empire and later becoming the property of the Catholic Church, today, the Pantheon represents a unique symbiosis of Roman and Western Christian cultures and ideologies. Studying the exterior, the interior, and planning details of this historical object offer novice architects and designers a vast layer of knowledge about the basics and nuances of the design and construction of buildings. This work will discuss the Pantheon’s features from the outer and inner perspectives and suggest several ways to modernize the building.

Exterior Part of the Pantheon of Rome

Unlike the interior, the Pantheon’s exterior has remained untouched and entirely in line with Roman architectural tradition. The structure of the construction implies the presence of two essential parts. The first one is the front porch reflecting the Ancient Greece’s cultural contribution. The second part is the major round edifice fully based on the Roman architectural standards. The Pantheon’s facade has sixteen columns, and their architectural uniqueness lies in the fact that each of them has a different size.

Researchers note that “the shafts are made of Egyptian granite, while the capitals and bases were carved from white Greek marble” (“Exterior”). The inscription on the frieze informs about the builder of the Pantheon. The main building consists of light Roman cement and bricks and has a cylindrical shape. Also, there is a round open area called oculus at the top of the dome providing natural light to the interior. The Pantheon of Rome is one of the first and illustrative examples of classical architecture.

Dimensions of the Floor Plan of the Pantheon of Rome

The genius of the Pantheon’s design is the uniform distribution of weight between parts of the building. This result was achieved due to the competent calculation of the floor plan. First of all, it is worth noting that the building stands on the groundwork height of one and three-tenths of a meter (Cartwright). Also, “the interior of the porch measures 34 x 20 meters and has four rose-pink columns creating three aisles” (Cartwright).

The size of the central passage into the main building is 12 x 7.5 meters (Cartwright). The floor plan of the main building is in its shape is a rotunda. The cylindrical structure is forty-three and two-tenths of a meter both in diameter and in height; therefore, the Pantheon of Rome is an ideal hemisphere (Cartwright). Also, the width of the oculus measures about nine meters. Along the entire perimeter of the rotunda, there are seven aedicules, some of which have an altar inside, and the other is dedicated to sepulchers (DeSimone). The high altar is located opposite the main entrance to the Pantheon of Rome.

Interior Part of the Pantheon of Rome

The inner beauty of the Pantheon is equivalent to if not superior to its structural genius. The vast ancient entrance doors and the frame of the oculus are made of bronze. The interior of the semicircular dome is decorated with a series of square panels covered in grey plaster, which size visually highlights the oculus (“Exterior”). The wall mainly consists of scarlet porphyry and grey granite. The border and the eaves of the high altar are also made of scarlet porphyry (Cartwright).

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The shrine is decorated with Christian symbols depicting the Mother of God and the Child and surrounded on the sides by columns of marble with purple additions (DeSimone). In general, the columns inside the main building differ from the exterior by the presence of a corrugated surface. Each of the seven aedicules has a sculpture, the most famous of which are statues of St. Anastasius and St. Rasio (DeSimone). Many architects and visitors of the Pantheon talk about him about the eighth wonder of the world precisely because of the internal component of this ancient building.


This paper examines the external and internal aspects of the Pantheon of Rome as well as parameters of its layout. However, as a generation of Christian architects once decorated the interior of a building, the current generation may also improve this Roman architectural monument. Permissible changes may be the return of the bronze coating for the cupola. Another possible variation is the painting of dome and doors in the original dark blue shades. A small bell tower might be placed near the building to highlight the Christian influence on the Pantheon from the exterior. The presence of plantations both inside and outside the building will also be useful and visually pleasing. Other changes may disrupt the harmony of the Pantheon of Rome.

Works Cited

Cartwright, Mark. “Pantheon.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. 2018. Web.

DeSimone, Shay Tressa. “Rome: Pantheon – Sanctuary & High Altar.” Flickr. 2016. Web.

Exterior.Piranesi in Rome. Web.

Muench, Stephen T. “Engineering the Pantheon – Architectural, Construction, & Structural Analysis.” Brewminate. 2017. Web.

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"Analysis of the External and Internal Constituents of the Pantheon of Rome." StudyCorgi, 22 June 2021,

1. StudyCorgi. "Analysis of the External and Internal Constituents of the Pantheon of Rome." June 22, 2021.


StudyCorgi. "Analysis of the External and Internal Constituents of the Pantheon of Rome." June 22, 2021.


StudyCorgi. 2021. "Analysis of the External and Internal Constituents of the Pantheon of Rome." June 22, 2021.


StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Analysis of the External and Internal Constituents of the Pantheon of Rome'. 22 June.

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