This case describes the medical condition of a 26-year-old woman. She has recently begun to suffer breathlessness, the lack of energy, and depressing thoughts. The symptoms got much worse during menstruation. While the patient was playing golf in a mountainous area, she felt slightly faint. She was taken to a hospital where the doctor found that the patient had a rapid heart and respiratory rate, and suffered low blood pressure. The woman explained that she had been suffering menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal for more than ten years. During the menstrual cycle, she takes 1,000 mg of aspirin four-five times a day. In addition, the woman takes aspirin in the summer to avoid problems with joints. The possible cause of these symptoms is anemia. However, there are several types of this disease. The main goal of this paper is to analyze this case to determine the type of anemia the patient suffers.
Types of Anemia
There are several the most common types of anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form and characterized by tiredness, sickliness, dyspnoea, and a fast heartbeat (“Seven types of anemia,” 2017). The symptoms of iron deficiency might occur in severe bleeding during menstruation or unusual pain. Aplastic anemia is a condition in which blood lacks new blood cells. Some symptoms are arrhythmias, enlarged heart, and inflammation. Hemolytic anemia is a disorder characterized by the destruction of red blood cells (“Seven types of anemia,” 2017). This condition can cause fatigue, aches, heart failure, and arrhythmias. Sickle cell anemia is a very serious disorder (“Seven types of anemia,” 2017). The body starts producing sickle-shaped red blood cells.
Usual symptoms of this type of anemia include headaches, light-headed feelings, and shortness of breath. Pernicious anemia is a disorder in which a patient suffers from the lack of vitaminB12, and consequently, the body cannot produce enough red blood cells (“Seven types of anemia,” 2017). The deficiency of vitamin B12 might cause depression, memory loss, an enlarged liver, and weight loss. Fanconi anemia is an inherited blood disease that can cause bone marrow failure and leukemia (“Seven types of anemia,” 2017). Microcytic anemia is a disorder in which the body cannot make enough hemoglobin. The most common symptoms of this type of anemia are dizziness, tiredness, dyspnoea, and loss of stamina.
The Patient’s Diagnosis
All types of anemia are defined by several medical indicators. The level of hemoglobin in women should be equal to or more than 12.0 fram/100 ml. (Balentine & Nabili, 2017). The normal hematocrit level in women ranges from 38% to 46%. Normal values of erythrocyte count are 4.10-5.10×1012/L in adult women. These laboratory values in the patient are below normal. It clearly indicates anemia. In addition, she suffers the typical for microcytic anemia symptoms. Also, RBC smear showed microcytic and hypochromic cells. It means that red blood cells are smaller and paler than normal. Consequently, it leads to a lack of hemoglobin. Finally, the use of aspirin for a long time might cause heavy menstrual bleeding that leads to iron deficiency.
The treatment for this type of anemia might be very simple if the underlying cause is the deficiency of the necessary nutrient. However, this disorder can lead to serious complications like coronary artery disease, pulmonary disease, and hypotension. Therefore, it is highly important to prevent such deterioration and start the treatment immediately.
Balentine, J. R., & Nabili, S. N. (2017) Anemia. Web.
Seven types of anaemia. (2017). Web.