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Anemia: Types, Detecting, Explanation

Anemia can be defined as a state of decrease in hemoglobin concentration because of the problems with oxygen transportation in blood. It is considered to be one of the global health problems, as this medical condition is common in everyday medical practice. Therefore, the detection of anemia type is crucial for selection of the treatment.

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Anemias can be classified by typical characteristics, such as size and shape of a blood cell, and by etiology. There are many types of anemia, depending on the reason for its occurrence. As some researchers state, “anemia may occur when there is a deficiency of a required nutrient, when bone marrow function is impaired, or when blood loss or excessive destruction of erythrocytes occurs” (Gould & Dyer, 2014, p. 251). Thus, the reasons for this disease may vary. It is also stated that anemia is difficult to detect at its early stages because of the vague symptoms, such as a headache or loss of productivity.

The case study in the given paper deals with the apparently healthy white woman named Ms. A who is twenty-six years old. During the golf season, she became light-headed and was taken to the hospital by her golfing partner. Ms. A reported that she had noticed shortness of breath and low level of energy recently. The patient also noted that she suffered from menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal since she was a teenager. Thus, Ms. A mentioned that the described symptoms seemed to be worse during her menses. The preliminary workup and analysis detected that the patient had anemia. For her treatment, it is crucial to detect what kind of anemia she most likely has.

According to the circumstances and analysis of the patient, it is possible to say that Ms. A might have iron deficiency anemia. It is generally agreed that iron conserves in the human body in several ways, including “the recycling of iron after the breakdown of red cells and the retention of iron in the absence of an excretion mechanism” (Longo & Camaschella, 2015, p. 1832). Lack of iron prevents the synthesis of hemoglobin and, thus, reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood causing such symptoms as tiredness and dizziness. As the blood test confirmed, the patient had low hemoglobin level and high amount of erythrocytes in blood.

Iron deficiency anemia is considered to be very common in all age groups. Still, it is usually a sign of another health problem. As the patient confirms, she suffers from menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal causing chronic blood loss. It is stated that continuous loss of blood, even in small amounts, may lead to the reduction of iron which is recycled to maintain a norm of hemoglobin production (Gould & Dyer, 2014). Therefore, it is possible to say that the patient has the acquired iron deficiency anemia.

Such symptoms as weakness, poor productivity and fatigue can also be listed as common for iron deficiency anemia. They are caused by “low delivery of oxygen to body tissues and decreased activity of iron-containing enzymes” (Longo & Camaschella, 2015). Still, the signs of iron deficiency are considered to be vague, and sometimes iron therapy does not help to remove them.

The given paper dealt with the detection of anemia type in the given case study. During the assessment of the symptoms and analysis, it was detected that the patient might have iron deficiency anemia. The diagnosis was reasoned and supported by the studies in the described field.

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References

Gould, B. E., & Dyer, R. (2014). Pathophysiology for the health professions. New-York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Longo, D. L., & Camaschella, C. (2015). Iron-deficiency anemia. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(19), 1832-1843.

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