Anemia is known as one of the most frequent blood disorders: it is the condition characterized by the lack of circulating red blood cells (Carcio & Secor, 2014). Because of the lack of red blood cells that carry oxygen, an individual often feels fatigued and looks pale. Women, children, and persons with chronic diseases, for instance, chronic kidney disease, are considered to be the risk groups. In this paper, the types of anemia are considered, and the case of Ms. A. is examined.
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Types of Anemia
It is possible to classify types of anemia taking into account its causes. In this regard, one can distinguish three groups:
- Anemia caused by excess blood loss (as a result of injury or some other trauma, a body loses its blood cells faster than it can reproduce them in a short period);
- Anemia caused by insufficient or defective red blood cells production (a body is unable to produce enough cells);
- Anemia caused by red blood cell destruction (a body itself destroys its blood cells) (Carcio & Secor, 2014).
Another classification that also pertains to causes is more detailed. It is probable to single out the following groups:
- Iron deficiency anemia;
- Vitamin deficiency anemia;
- Anemia of chronic disease;
- Aplastic anemia;
- Anemias associated with bone marrow disease;
- Hemolytic anemias;
- Sickle cell anemia (Carcio & Secor, 2014).
Judging by the symptoms, one can state that Ms. A. is likely to have iron deficiency anemia. The most frequent type of anemia worldwide, it is characterized by the shortage of iron in a body: since one’s bone marrow needs iron to produce hemoglobin, without the adequate amount of this element, a body cannot produce enough hemoglobin for the red blood cells. The iron deficiency anemia may occur in pregnant women, patients with cancer, people with ulcers, and those who use some over-the-counter pain relievers (Mayo Clinic Staff, n.d.). There are also other factors relevant to the case under discussion.
First of all, the patient’s medical history gives ground to claim it is the iron-deficiency anemia: as Ms. A. informed, she suffered from menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea ten years ago. To address those problems, the patient started taking aspirin. As an over-the-counter pain reliever, it has a strong impact on a body and increases the risks of iron deficiency anemia development (Mayo Clinic Staff, n.d.).
In addition to the medication intake during menstruation, Ms. A. also uses aspirin in summer to avoid “stiffness in her joints,” but it is another symptom that indicates the anemia. Later on, she complains of the difficulty of respiration, apathy, and the absence of enthusiasm, especially during her menstruation. According to the attending physician’s notes, the patient’s blood pressure is low. These symptoms are also characteristic of iron deficiency anemia.
In this situation, it is necessary to increase the patient’s iron levels as soon as possible, and dietary changes are recommended. Red meat, especially beef and liver, peas, spinach, and other dark green leafy vegetables, and soybeans will be helpful (Carcio & Secor, 2014). Iron supplements may be useful.
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Overall, there are several types of anemia, and iron deficiency anemia is the most common type all over the globe. Considering the patient’s symptoms, one can state it is the iron deficiency type. The medical history, the patient’s general state, and the fact that Ms. A. frequently takes aspirin are the main evidence.
Carcio, H., & Secor, R. M. (2014). Advanced health assessment of women: Clinical skills and procedures. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (n.d.). Anemia. Web.