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Assignment on Cardiovascular Disease

Prolonged chest pain is a symptom that can indicate different conditions and requires immediate attention from a healthcare professional. Charles Bennington experienced a severe case of crushing chest pains that did not resolve after forty minutes. Additionally, the patient reports dyspnea, dizziness, and nausea when unloading his truck, which can help diagnose his condition. This paper will explore the pathophysiology of Charles Bennington’s condition and outline some key elements of diagnosing his disease and modifying the risk factors.

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Firstly, the pathophysiology of prolonged chest pains that this patient has can be connected to several conditions. For example, myocardial infarction is a condition characterized by “an obstructed blood flow to the heart”, can cause Brennon’s symptoms (Zipes et al., 2019, p. 120). Essentially, it is a heart attack that is extremely dangerous and can lead to damage to the heart muscle. Other heart-related issues characterized by chest pains are coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocarditis.

However, it is essential to examine other symptoms because prolonged chest pains can signal an issue with lungs, muscles, esophagus, ribs, or nerves (Zipes et al., 2019). The type of pains, for example, sharp or dull matters as well because it can be an indicator of a specific problem, and Bennington reports crushing pains. This is an indicator of coronary atherosclerosis, which is a result of an unstable plaque that formed a clot in the artery (Zipes et al., 2019). The patient may experience a lack of oxygen, which subsequently leads to ischemia.

Atrial fibrillation is a common cause of tachycardia and low blood pressure. The cracks in the lungs suggest pulmonary conditions, such as acute pulmonary embolism or bronchitis. However, considering the heart-related symptoms, the following conclusions can be made. Bennington’s low blood pressure is a result of decreased cardiac output. The left ventricle contractility is compromised because of the clot. Next, tachycardia is a result of arterial baroreceptor reflexes that are connected to the compromised cardiac output. This is caused by the sympathetic nervous system stimulation of the heart. Finally, the cracks are a result of the left heart being unable to employ, causing pulmonary congestion.

Acute coronary syndrome is a dangerous condition because of the damage to the heart tissue that is a result of it. In general, the blood flow to a part of the heart is restricted, and the muscle can no longer function properly. As a result, it does and can no longer fulfill its functions. One disease that can be described as acute coronary syndrome is a heart attack. A second option is an unstable angina, which is a sudden chest pain that occurs when the patient is at rest (Zipes et al., 2019). It is caused by reduced blood flow and fatty buildups that obstruct the blood flow of arteries that became narrower.

ECG allows examining the functioning of Mr. Benning’s heart because this tool measures its electrical activity. In the case of Mr. Bennington, ECG can be used to detect any ST elevation, which is necessary to be able to detect acute ischemia. Additionally, ECG can help evaluate the inverted T wave and Q wave for the detection of the infraction. Thus, ECG helps examine the heart function of this patient.

Next, blood studies that can confirm the acute cardiological infraction are biomarkers. Mainly, the elevation in cardiac biomarkers can be examined, specifically the troponin I or CK-MB. The two can be used to confirm the initial diagnosis for Mr. Bennington. If the results of these tests are negative, this is an indication of unstable angina. Therefore, blood tests play an essential role in determining the specific diagnosis for Mr. Bennington.

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Diminished pedal pulses and bruits can indicate atherosclerosis in different vascular beds. In general, it is common for atherosclerosis to affect different vascular beds. As a result, they lose elasticity and develop thickened layers (Zipes et al., 2019). The complications of this condition are usually a form of thrombosis and subsequent necrosis or ischemia. Therefore, it is vital to examine Mr. Brennan and detect other vascular beds affected by the condition. Myocardial infarction often occurs in the left ventricle, which is a possibility with Mr. Benington as well. This is because when comparing the functioning of the two, the left one has a higher workload. This results in higher oxygen consumption when compared to the right ventricle.

Apart from his heart, Mr. Brennan is concerned with his head because he was feeling dizzy. This can be a result of a lack of oxygen because of impaired heart function. Therefore, dizziness is not an indicator of a heart condition. Instead, it confirms the initial diagnosis of a heart-related condition. Since the diagnosis of unstable angina was confirmed, it is necessary to outline this condition. In this case, a plaque forms a clot and obstructs the blood flow, causing the symptoms that the patient experienced. In the case of a heart attack, the muscle dies because of the prolonged obstruction of the blood flow. It is essential to educate Mr. Bennington about the risks because coronary atherosclerosis can cause a heart attack, and the risk of it increases for people diagnosed with unstable angina.

Overall, this paper examined the case study of Charles Brennan, a 55 years old man with chest pains. The examination of symptoms and test results indicates that the patient may suffer from a heart attack or unstable angina. Additional screening, such as blood tests and ECG, can help evaluate the condition and have a clear diagnosis. It is essential to educate this patient on risk factors because he can suffer from a heart attack in the future.

Reference

Zipes, D. P., Libby, P., Bonow, R. O., Mann, D. L., & Tomaselli, G. F. (2019). Braunwald’s heart disease e-book (11 ed.). Elsevier.

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