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Child Psychology Peculiarities

In personality development, childhood is considered to be very significant. Therefore in an attempt to analyze appropriate moves about children breaking away stand by me or hope, I will consider Erickson’s perspective of psychosocial development, as far as childhood is concerned.

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According to Erickson as the child develops ego identity surface. This being the conscious sense of self that appears through social interaction, it continues to change depending on the experiences and information the child acquires through daily association with others (Marcia, pp. 551-58). In addition to ego identity, Erickson also theorized that a child’s behavior, as well as actions, can be motivated by a sense of competence.

For a child to become competent in the area of life, lies solely on how each stage is handled. If each stage is managed well, the person feels a sense of mastery, while poor management leads to a sense of inadequacy to the person (Stevens & Erik, pp. 117-145). For a child to be able to develop psychological quality depends on conflict experienced as he/she develops. At this point, consideration must be given to each stage to ascertain how/why children break away.

Infancy

This can be classified as that period between childbirth and 18 months. During this period the child is seen to entirely rely on the dependability and quality of those who are tending her/him. It is at this stage whereby caregivers such as parents and guardians should be consistent, available as well as accepting to create a sense of trust in the children (Stevens & Erik, pp. 117-145).

When the child fails to develop trust tends to fear and believe of the world as being neither consistent nor predictable. Here, the mother acts as the inner certainty to the child, and only with anxiety and rage can the child let the sight of her mother. in the event the child loses the trust of himself or others, automatically the virtue of hope disappears. A child will mature into a fully developed person if the concept of trust versus mistrust is properly learned, understood, and applied. The positive outcome of a child expected at this stage is to be able to trust the people around her/him as well as the environment (Marcia 551-58).

Toddler

This is taken to be the stage when the child is 18 months to 3 years. The psychological aspects here are autonomy vs. shame and doubt. It is at this stage that the child is seen to develop a greater sense of personal control (Marcia 551-58). It is believed that the ability to manipulate one’s body functions leads a child to have a feeling of control as well as a sense of independence. At this stage, the child gains control of important events, choices, preferences as well as selection (Erikson 87-101). Where a child can complete this stage he feels secure and confident, while inadequacy and self-doubt befall a child who fails to complete the stage (Erikson, pp. 87-101).

A child at this stage develops autonomy as he/she discovers that he/she is no longer attached to the primary caregiver. The autonomous behavior is a prerequisite of own Identity formulation towards the ‘will’ to become independent. As the child strives to achieve independence, choices or limits should be given to avoid shame and doubt. Where the primary caregiver is too demanding for good behavior, can be a source of conflict between the child and the caregiver. At this stage, the caregiver should act as a support and an aide, rather than an obstacle, to avoid frustrating the developing toddler (Stevens & Erik, pp. 117-145).

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Reasonable choices in addition to proper guidance from the caregiver can assist the child to develop autonomy in a better sense. Where parents fail to offer healthy and wise choices, the child fails to succeed at this stage. The feeling of autonomy molded in the child and modified during development serves as the preservation in economic as well as the political life of sense of justice (Stevens & Erik, pp.117-145).

Pre-school

This is taken to be 3 to 5 years in a child’s development. The psychological aspects here include initiative as opposed to guiltiness. At this stage, initiative compliments autonomy the aspect of being active through the undertaking, planning as well as performing. There the child is seen to master the environment around him/her. It is at this stage that the child actively learns basic skills, as well as principles of physics such as things, fall not up, only round things roll, tying, and untying among others (Erikson 87-101). At this stage, the child actively begins and completes his/her actions.

Guilty, emotion being conformity to the child, the child may feel guilty over things even though the same might not be guilty producing. A child feels guilt if his/her actions fail to bear the desired results.

Here the child is faced with the difficulties of planning and developing a sense of judgment. Leadership, as well as objectivity, are learned at this stage with the child’s initiatives. The child may at times seek risk activities involving self-limits, such as crossing roads on his/her own. The child is doing so is seen to define his/her boundary (Marcia 551-58). Negative behavior can crop up at this stage due to frustration for being unable to achieve his/her goal as planned. These negative behaviors may seem aggressive, ruthless as well as being assertive to the parents. Where the behaviors are not checked, the child can develop a sense of guilt (Erikson, pp. 87-101). This sense of guilt can culminate into the child being assertive, aggressive, inhibited as well as being entirely dependent. When this happens the child is seen to be less reluctant to try new situations unless under the aid of an adult. Moreover, children at this age need some sense of guilt to act as guidance for self-control in addition to being a healthy being.

It is important to note that caregivers at this stage are a crucial aspect in assisting a child to develop the self-initiative to set goals (Marcia 551-58). This is so because the caregiver can model self-control that is a prerequisite in goal setting. The caregiver is and should be in a position to assist the child with reasoning through decision-making. At this juncture, caregivers should not impede instructions alternatively they should reassure the child via motivation and positive discussion (Stevens & Erik 117-145). A caregiver or supervisor should not discourage a child from completing a goal independently as this kills her/his morale hence developing a sense of guilt.

A healthy balance of initiative and guilt can only be achieved in circumstances whereby the caregiver provides the child with achievable responsibility. A child with no responsibility whether from parents or his/her own grows fearful and develops adult dependence (Stevens & Erik 117-145). Parents, as well as teachers, should model the child’s social development virtues such as being courageous empathetic, self-disciplined as well as being loyal. In so doing, the parent or caregiver should afford the child some respect by considering his/her opinion before embarking on disciplinary measures (Marcia, pp. 551-58).

School-age constitutes children in the age bracket of 6 years through teens. In this age bracket, the psycho-social aspects are industry vs. inferiority. A child at this age becomes aware of him/herself. He/she strives to be responsible, good, and right. Children at this stage engage themselves in more complex skills, integrate moral values, and recognize cultural and individual differences (Erikson, pp. 87-101). It is at this stage whereby children disobey caregivers as a way of showing independence. A child at this stage should be taught the importance and values of success. As per Robert Brooks (2007), parents should breed self-ego resilience through understanding and accepting the children’s learning problems. They should also offer guidance on problem-solving and decision making, cement responsibility through accepting children’s contribution, in addition to making the child feel special (Stevens & Erik, pp. 117-145).

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Adolescence (teen to 20)

Personal appearance is the major concern of this age group, as acquired confidence in the superego forbids the meaning for oneself. The child seeks identification at this stage. Children who fail in this stage remain unsure of their beliefs and desires and they seem to be confused about themselves as well as the future (Erikson 87-101)

Work Cited

  1. Erikson, Erik H. Identity and the Life Cycle. New York: International Universities Press. 1959. pp. 87-101.
  2. Marcia, J. E. Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3. 1966. pp. 551-58.
  3. Stevens, Richard. , Erik Erikson. An Introduction New York: St. Martin’s. 1983. pp 117-145.

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StudyCorgi. (2021, October 26). Child Psychology Peculiarities. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/child-psychology-peculiarities/

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StudyCorgi. (2021, October 26). Child Psychology Peculiarities. https://studycorgi.com/child-psychology-peculiarities/

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"Child Psychology Peculiarities." StudyCorgi, 26 Oct. 2021, studycorgi.com/child-psychology-peculiarities/.

1. StudyCorgi. "Child Psychology Peculiarities." October 26, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/child-psychology-peculiarities/.


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