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Child Psychology: Toy Design and Elderly Visit

Toy Design

Even though babies do not have sufficient motor ability, they enjoy investigating the world, and toys are the most helpful tools in this process of exploration (Foley & Matlin, 2016). Since they bear the aim of developing infants’ senses of perception, such toys should correspond to several requirements. First of all, they should be safe. Infants cannot control their movements, and parents cannot observe them all the time. It a baby is left alone in the room with some toy, it is necessary to make sure that the toy is not heavy and that it does not have any sharp angles. The best toys for such age are made of soft fabrics or high-quality plastic.

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The second feature necessary for infants’ toys is that they should be colorful. At the age of eight weeks, babies have functional L- and M-cones (Foley & Matlin, 2016). At the age of four months, they have S-cones (Foley & Matlin, 2016). Thus, it is necessary to give infants toys that will develop their color perception. The most common colors for such toys are bright and distinct: green, orange, blue, yellow, purple, or red.

The next characteristics of a good toy are contrast and simplicity of design. The toys may incorporate two colors or materials. There are toys that have several elements combined, such as an octopus each tentacle of which has a different color and produces a different sound when being squeezed. An infant will have fun trying something new each time. Plastic toys can have various surfaces for the development of babies’ sense of touch.

Basically, toys for infants under the age of six months should be colorful, diverse, and, most of all, safe. They develop babies’ senses, keep them interested, and educate about the world. Also, toys help parents to distract the infants or soothe them.

An Elderly Visit

While infants’ vision and hearing are not developed well enough during the first months of their life, the problem with elderly people is that their perception acuity starts to deteriorate. Because the lens becomes thicker and the pupil becomes smaller as people age, the retina of an elderly person receives three times less light than the retina of a young person (Foley & Matlin, 2016). Such problems as presbyopia, glaucoma, and cataracts are frequent in this age, which disables elderly people to lead a comfortable life without the help of glasses or lenses. It is necessary to make sure there is plenty of light because older people do not accommodate easily (Foley & Matlin, 2016). The rooms in the house should have plenty of sunshine in daytime and enough artificial light in the morning and evening. If a visitor wants to read, a table lamp or a bra should be turned on. If a family wants to do something together, it is possible to arrange some activity that does not require much acuity or motion perception. For instance, people can do some crafts that do not contain minute details or cook something. That way, the elderly visitor will feel comfortable and will see that everyone cares about him or her.

Hearing acuity also deteriorates with age. Sometimes, elderly people have difficulty understanding other people’s speech, especially if they speak in high frequencies (Foley & Matlin, 2016). Therefore, to make a visit of an elderly relative successful, it is necessary to take into consideration the peculiarities of the aging visual and hearing systems. It is crucial for all family members to make sure that there are no distractions such as loud music. A visitor should be able to hear everyone, so it might be necessary to speak a little louder than usual.


Foley, H. J., & Matlin, M. W. (2016). Sensation and perception (5th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

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