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Cognitive Neuroscience: Language Processing and Memory

The statement that the left hemisphere controls language is wrong since the activity of the hemisphere is imbalanced. Thus, this is most evident in individuals, where the right hemisphere regulates spatial awareness and manages the opposite side of the brain. In contrast, the left hemisphere handles logical thinking and motor tasks that need step-by-step development (Banich & Compton, 2018). Individuals’ right hemispheres (RH) participate in language comprehension in three distinct respects (Banich & Compton, 2018). First, the RH interprets some parts of phonology, which refers to an utterance’s intonation structure or sound purse (Banich & Compton, 2018).

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Second, the RH’s structuring of semantic knowledge is distinct from the left, offering a broader context in which people’s words are examined (Banich & Compton, 2018). Third, the right hemisphere is critical for narrative and reasoning processing (Banich & Compton, 2018). The capacity to develop or comprehend a storyline is referred to as storytelling. Still, the ability to “complete in the spaces” and make conclusions about information not presented is referred to as inference (Banich & Compton, 2018). On the other hand, the left hemisphere (LH) is in charge of logical sequences, such as concocting a stone axe, which advances in series in a particular dimension.

Broca’s aphasia occurs when a person’s Broca’s region or its peripherals are damaged. Broca’s aphasics speak slowly, haltingly, and are rarely grammatically correct, as expected by the importance of Broca’s region in phonological awareness (Banich & Compton, 2018). However, they are often able to name items and complete other meaning-related activities without trouble. As such, I would rather have Broca aphasia because of the ability to identify objects and interpret situations without difficulties. As opposed to Wernicke’s aphasia, which is the reverse of Broca’s aphasia, it occurs when Wernicke’s brain region is damaged (Banich & Compton, 2018).

It is usual for Wernicke aphasics to generate the identities of interacting components or syllables that sound similar to the element’s name when they cannot describe the item they are attempting to identify.

Temporarily storing of sensory data is known as sensory memory. Sensory memory fades away quickly if one ignores it and pass it through for further understanding. Information with a long-term dimension, such as color recognition or familiar voice recognition, is processed within the sensory memory (Banich & Compton, 2018). Short term memory influences a person’s concentration ability to retain a particular piece of information. For more than a few seconds, but generally, less than a minute, tiny volumes of data can be stored in short-term memory (STM) (Banich & Compton, 2018). Working memory refers to the procedures individuals use to make sense of, adapt, comprehend, and retain knowledge in STM, which is not retained forever but rather becomes accessible for persons to comprehend.

The storing of knowledge over a long period is called “long-term memory” (LTM). Steady and long-lasting, this form of memory can survive for many years. Explicit and implicit cognition are two subcategories of long-term memory (Banich & Compton, 2018). Memories that can be recalled consciously are known as explicit memories (Banich & Compton, 2018). Even if an individual is unaware of the influence of prior experiences on their conduct, implicit memory can nevertheless impact their actions.

LTM processes information relating to sound, auditory information, and words. Retrograde amnesia affects sensory memory by affecting recollections generated before initiation of amnesia (Banich & Compton, 2018). For example, a person who suffers retrograde amnesia following catastrophic brain damage may be unable to recall events that occurred years, if not decades, before the injury.

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Anterograde amnesia is a term that refers to a diminished capacity for retaining additional knowledge (Banich & Compton, 2018). Thus, interacting with a person’s regular routines affects their working memory. Additionally, it may impede job and socializing, as the individual may have difficulty generating new thoughts. Retrograde amnesia is most frequently associated with damage to sections of the brain other than the hippocampus, the portion of the brain responsible for recording new memories. Thus, existing long-term remembrances are maintained in the synaptic connections of a variety of other brain locations.


Banich, M. T., & Compton, R. J. (2018). Cognitive neuroscience. Cambridge University Press.

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