It is always good to understand the meaning of what one wants to discus. It will be impossible for one to critically discuss what he or she does not understand. The key word in this discussion is domestic violence but before I get into that I will first explain or rather define violence.
In a simple way or in a lay man’s language or understanding, violence is a state of war or fight against another party. It occurs mainly because of misunderstanding. Other reasons are because of wanting to feel superior over another party, hatred, scrambling for a property or a past amongst other reasons.
Domestic violence is a kind of act that happens when a member of the family or ex partner tries to harm the other by dominating them physically or psychologically. Domestic violence is also known as domestic abuse or spousal abuse. Domestic violence can happen to anyone, it does not choose the young from the old, the beautiful from the ugly or the rich from the poor.
It does not discriminate on such groups, it can befall any one and at any time. Domestic violence mostly refers to violence between spouses which is what is called in most cases as spousal abuse. This is usually not the case, domestic violence can happen to cohabitants or intimate partners who are not married (Rossman, B.B.R., Hughes, H.M., & Rosenburg, M.S., 2000).
Domestic violence encompasses very many issues. It is caused by so many issues in the society and its prevalence can lead to so many problems which can be social problems, physical problems, psychological and even economical problems.
Domestic violence is also a factor that can lead to a family disintegration, injustice, high rates of crimes and criminology, breakdown of norms and virtues in the society, degradation of human rights thus ending up with for example disabilities which is commonly encountered by the vulnerable groups that is children, women, disabled and the sick people (Rossman, B.B.R., Hughes, H.M., & Rosenburg, M.S. , 2000).
It is then true that domestic violence is a vice in the society and should be completely eradicated so as to avoid the problems named in the previous paragraph.
Investigation of domestic violence then can definitely lead to reduction if not eradication of such problems and most especially to the vulnerable groups or curbed by starting with me and you (the family members of specific families) before involving others for example before the government, community based organizations (CBO’s) and even the non- governmental organizations.
I am not saying that these bodies should not be involved but the point is that such bodies should come in when there are extremes or when we the family members have tried and have not succeeded. This is because you and me know our family problems better than the outside world and hence can solve them easily.
Once that is in our mind then there will be no long processes for example going to courts where money has to be paid instead of using such money for doing other constructive things (Fantuzzo, J.W., De Paola, L.M., Lambert, L., Martino, T., Anderson,G., & Sutton, S. ,1991)..
Social problems have come far away since time immemorial. It is a historical occurrence that was also encountered by our fore fathers. I always like defining contexts in a lay man’s lay language for everyone reading my articles to understand.
A social problem is a way of behavior which social order considers as violation of one or more generally accepted or approved norms. It is a sizable discrepancy between what is and what people think should not be for example poverty, suicide, homelessness.
It is an alleged situation that is incompatible with the values of a significant number of people who agree that action is needed alter the situation. Here the situation is defined by people as a social problem in terms of social values they have. An alleged situation here also means a situation that is said to exist; this means there is no surety of the existence of this situation. The incompatible values are situations defined by people’s values that they hold.
Social problems hence can be seen in four elements namely those seen to have caused physical, social or mental damage, those that have offended the values of some powerful segments that is outstanding people in the society, those that have persisted for a very long time for example corruption where some people are profiting from other people’s problems and lastly social problems that have generated competing proposed solutions, for instance stakeholders have always decided on the best approach to solve social problems.
A problem may persist for a long time because there reaches a time when individuals look at it as very normal, for example prostitution is no longer a big deal as it used to be and today it is looked at as a way of earning cash to improve one’s standards of living (Rossman, B.B.R., Hughes, H.M., & Rosenburg, M.S. 2000).
Critical literature review
Domestic violence has many forms that give it its character. These forms take different characters, ideas and also action to be able to be referred to domestic violence. These forms of violence are as follows; there can be physical violence, intimidation, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, threats of violence and also economic deprivation. These are factors that get to be termed as domestic violence.
Domestic violence can be criminal or not criminal though the non criminal type of domestic violence can lead to criminal offences taking place( Fantuzzo, J.W., De Paola, L.M., Lambert, L., Martino, T., Anderson,G., & Sutton, S. ,1991).
Physical violence is the kind of violence that causes harm in the long run. It is the intentional use of physical force that causes an injury, disability or even death to the victim. The kind of physical force that can be used at this point is for example pushing, shoving, hitting, biting, kicking and also the use of weapons to harm the victim.
This kind of domestic violence is considered to be criminal and it is very dangerous. In most cases, this kind of violence starts as an argument and ends up being physical. One can hit the other with a lot of strength causing a disability or one can even kill the other. This therefore becomes a criminal offence (Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. ,November, 2000).
This is when one partner at all times suppresses the others ideas by means of threats (Fantuzzo, J.W., De Paola, L.M., Lambert, L., Martino, T., Anderson,G., & Sutton, S., 1991).
Emotional abuse which is also referred to as psychological abuse is also a very strong form of domestic violence. This kind of violence is one that messes with ones emotions and mostly this kind happens to the weaker sexes who are said to be the women.
Ones ideas when expressed are laughed upon making them feel stupid. This happens by causing the victim deliberate discomfort and embarrassment, separating them from family and friends, making them not to do what they like and forcing them to do what they do not want to do instead and also denying the victim what they consider to be basic needs (Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. ,November, 2000).
Sexual abuse can happen to both sexes. This is the taking advantage of a person, who is unwilling to participate in the act of a sexual act, unable to understand the nature of the act and also unable to decline participation in the sexual act.
These are the under age people, those who are under the influence of drugs and alcohol, illness, disabilities or even due to pressure and intimidation. Another kind of sexual abuse is compelling a person to have sexual intercourse by means of physical force.
Marital rape is defined as forcing a partner in marriage to have sexual intercourse without their consent. This happens to women in most cases, the woman might be tired or not in the mood for sexual activities and tells the partner this. The partner might get angry and therefore decide to take the partner by force (Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. November, 2000).
Threats of violence
Some people at times when they want something to be done for them or not to be done at all, they resort to issuing threats to others of performing violent acts on them.
At times the use of threats works effectively without the actual act of violence done but at times the threats that are administered turn to be violent acts. Threats are considered to be part of domestic violence (Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N., November, 2000).
This happens when one withholds finances from another in order to cause them suffering. These finances can either be that of the victim or that of the abuser or both of them. The abuser holds these finance in such a way that he or she considers the amount to give the victim or not to give at all.
This therefore makes the victim to rely on the abuser for use of finances which might be rationed on not given at all. The abuser might also misuse these funds so that the victim does not get anything from these finances. This can also be considered as a way of depriving someone an education by not providing finances for their study(Fantuzzo, J.W., De Paola, L.M., Lambert, L., Martino, T., Anderson,G., & Sutton, S. ,1991).
Name callings and putdowns
This happens a lot in ones day to day life. People call others names so as to hurt them and cause them embarrassments or generally to make them feel bad about themselves. This also plays part in felicitating for domestic violence.
People in relationships call each other names especially when they are angry at each other. During times of anger in the household, people call each other names out of anger. At times these name callings cause a lot of regret when the arguments are over. One might have said something to their partner that can cause a serious rift between the two.
These name callings are usually in most cases causing more problems in the relationship adding to the first problem that brought about the issue of name callings. Name callings also cause people o become introverts considering how seriously they took what they were told as being true.
Name callings in most cases are usually intended to be putdowns towards the victim and this can mess a person psychologically (Fantuzzo, J.W., De Paola, L.M., Lambert, L., Martino, T., Anderson,G., & Sutton, S., 1991).
Stalking is the act of following the every move of the victim at whatever time or place. Stalkers at all times keep their victims at a close range so that they get to see what they are doing or where they are going. This make s the victim to be unsure of their safety and it can also cause them to avoid going out of their houses. This makes them to be very isolated an also paranoid at all times (Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. ,November, 2000).
Summary of the Research Articles
This article, Effects of interpersonal violence on the psychological adjustment and competencies of young children written by Fantuzzo, J.W., De Paola, L.M., Lambert, L., Martino, T., Anderson,G., & Sutton, S. in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology of 1991 examines the effects of domestic violence in children and other affected persons including the disabled.
The writer highlights the effects of various forms of violence domestic violence including causing disability. The effects of intimation, physical violence, sexual abuse and other forms of violence causes disability not only physical disability but also mental disability.
In the article Domestic violence and people with disabilities by Nora J. and Baladerian N.J. gives the effects of domestic violence to the disabled. Majority of disables people especially women are affected by domestic violence, if they are not accepted in the society where they live.
The violence experienced by this group according to the writer is not specifically physical, it involves denying the monetary benefits which other group of people in same position are enjoying in the society. The writer concludes that domestic violence can also cause disability to the people who are subjected to it.
Parents may engage in domestic violence that will eventually cause disability to the children or to one of the parents and this will have get effects to the persons in the society.
This is argued by Rossman, B.B.R., Hughes, H.M., & Rosenburg, M.S. in the article Children and Inter-parental violence: The Impact of Exposure. Most children exposed to domestic violence end up being violent in their life causing vicious cycle of violence in the society. The article argues further that domestic violence is major cause of disability to individual who were not born with disabilities.
The on Prevalence, Incidence and Consequences of violence Against Women from the National violence Against Women Survey carried in Washington, DC by Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. of National Institute of Justice has highlighted the effects and people prone to violence in the society as a whole.
The devastating impact of disability maltreatment on individuals, families, and society at large is well documented in empirical studies.
Many serious long-term effects have been linked to maltreatment, including mental retardation, intellectual and intelligence handicaps, impaired aggressive impulse control, diminished ego competency, reduced reality testing, and poor interpersonal relationships.
Significant behavioral effects have also been traced to child maltreatment. These include uncontrollable severe temper tantrums, extreme withdrawal, rebelliousness, hostility, and overt violence (Nora J. Baladerian N.J, 2008).
However, the observations do not reveal whether the disabled were “abused” because of their high rate of delinquency or if the high rate of delinquency led to the abuse by or harshness of the aggressors. Disabled abuse and neglect has a serious impact on the structure and dynamics of society.
In the same it was also found that among the neglected and abused disabled, a number had later become criminal, alcoholic, and/or mentally ill, or had died prior to age 35, possibly as a consequence of the abuse/violence (Nora J. Baladerian N.J, 2008).
The experience of domestic violence often involves a child or a disabled person being coerced into abuse through processes constructed by the abuser, to allow violence to be committed without detection and to instill a sense of fear and responsibility in the child or disability person, so as to prevent them from feeling able to tell.
This coercion may involve sexual, physical, and emotional acts that may or may not be understood, but by virtue of age and/or circumstances cannot be consented to. Such an event is likely to be experienced as a trauma. The circumstances and combinations of these processes are as many as there are children who have been abused (Rossman, B.B.R., Hughes, H.M., & Rosenburg, M.S., 2000).
Domestic violence should not happen to anyone at all costs. No one should consider themselves to be at fault when being the recipient of violence therefore accepting the violence and not reporting. This is something that should not happen to anyone at all costs. Those that consider themselves as abusers and that they are actually in this world to torment others should actually be stopped since they will cause many harm if they think in such a way.
Domestic violence can be physical and can also be psychological. There are also criminal and non criminal forms of domestic violence. Some of the non violent types of violence at times lead to criminal acts. At all times, people should try and avoid violence towards others so that life between people should be good.
Fantuzzo, J.W., De Paola, L.M., Lambert, L., Martino, T., Anderson,G., & Sutton, S. (1991). Effects of interpersonal violence on the psychological adjustment and competencies of young children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 258-265
Nora J. Baladerian N.J( 2008); DOMESTIC violence and people with disabilities, Jewish Women International.
Rossman, B.B.R., Hughes, H.M., & Rosenburg, M.S. (2000). Children and Interparental violence : The Impact of Exposure. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.
Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (November, 2000). Full Report of Prevalence, Incidence and Consequences of violence Against Women: Findings from the National violence Against Women Survey. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, NCJ 183781.