In recent times, most organizations are adopting emerging technologies to match the high competition in the market. Information systems (IS) are a set of components, which are integrated and aimed at the collection, processing, and storing of data in providing information, digital products, and knowledge (Yaacoub & Salman, 2020). Cybersecurity is a technique that aims at maintaining and safeguarding data from malicious attacks. Drone technology uses pilotless aerial vehicles, which operate under combined technologies including artificially intelligent computers, object avoidance technology, and others. This paper will discuss drones technology cybersecurity and information systems.
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IS and Cybersecurity Considerations for Use of Drones in an Organizational Supply/Value Chain
Drones use information systems components in their automation, understand supply chain management, and highly rely on the internet and network. First, drones raise security concerns about whether they can be used to perform criminal activities since they are small in size, affordable, and are easy to move. The second consideration is privacy, which can be physical, locational, and behavioral in supply chain management. Maintaining confidentiality is important; thus, drones open new threats to secrecy as they can be used to spy and collect videos and images that may be used against an organization.
The safety concern is an important factor to consider and arises due to malfunctioning. Drone technology has been an emerging technology that has not been well-developed, and sometimes, it may lose control and cause some damages and losses (Yaacoub & Salman, 2020). There are several factors as to why there is no guarantee of safety. One of them is the design of drones which lacks a safety feature; thus, full control is not guaranteed. Drones do not have standards on technology and operations that are related to crash avoidance mechanisms. Signal distortion is another factor; drones are prone to attacks like hacking. Finally, countries lack enough regulations in governing the commercial uses of drones.
Drone Usage in Public and Private Organizations
The application of drones ranges from private to public use. Some of the applications include the emergence of medicine in both legal and practical aspects of mining industries, agricultural sectors, and the military. According to Konert et al., 2019, drones are applied in medicine through rescue operations as they can function at low altitudes and save lives. For example, the application of thermal emerging cameras by a Canadian police officer identified a man in a car wreck, and the rescue team could reach him (Konert et al., 2019). Moreover, in Switzerland, two hospitals used drones in delivering blood samples and analysis materials (Konert et al., 2019). This operation marked the first application of drones in medical settings.
The Polish Air Force Institute of Technology has created a drone called AtraxM. This drone is said to send information to the rescue team to identify the place of the accident, the number of victims in the accident, and the scale of the accident even before the main rescue team arrives (Konert et al., 2019). More advancements are being made in drone technology and increasing automation in the field of medicine.
Moreover, the use of drones has gone as far as in the mining industry. Findings by Shahmoradi et al. (2020) show that the two main advantages of using drones in this field include the use of specialized ones fitted with sensors, which can inspect an area during an emergency or identify hazards. The second advantage is that they can be used in the inspection and unblocking of locked box-holes, and also in the ore passes process. In surface mining, drones can be applied in monitoring, mapping, and surveying. This method is preferred over the traditional one because it cost saving.
Also, in-ground mining challenges occur due to reasons such as reduced visibility and dust concentration. Still, drones can access the unreachable area in underground mines. Other drone applications in this sector include detection of gas in underground coal mines, rescue missions through a combination of technology, and unmanned ground vehicles. Lastly, drones are more applicable in abandoned mines in mapping and monitoring, making them more cost-effective than other methods.
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In the military, drones have widely been used as they are unmanned, meaning there are pilotless. This feature makes them more advantageous over manned aerial vehicles. The military pioneered the use of drones where they operated them in spying on the enemy and were able to plan an attack (Kozera, 2018). Drones were also utilized in attacks and proved to be more efficient as they posed no risk to the lives of soldiers. Today, technology drones are more advanced and are being used to conduct sophisticated missions.
In earlier years drones were associated with the military, making it difficult for organizations to invest in the product. Today the application of drones is on the increase as the world gets autonomous; thus, the drone market is expanding each day. Business organizations like Amazon, Google, and others need to keep up with the changing technology (Atwater, 2015). The company is working on drone technology to deliver products to consumers. In countries such as Austria, drone technology has successfully been utilized in delivery in the past two years.
In the entertainment industry, drones have been greatly used to replace the old methods. Every day, the origination is analyzing the new options emerging to arrive at the best choice. Drone technology has become the better option in automation cost and accuracy (Atwater, 2015). In this industry, drone technology has substituted boom cameras on traveling vehicles, small planes used for small shots, and helicopters.
In organizations such as those dealing with firefighting, there have been great dangers to individuals who collect information on the area of the accident in the past. Today, organizations are investing in drone technology as it is more efficient and provides a secure way of gathering crisis and site information for analysis and sending the data to command centers and rescue teams. The use of drones in this area has not replaced humans but has improved the health safety of workers with fewer resources used.
How Organization Can Leverage its Investment in Drone Technology
Every day, organizations are investing in drone technology, which has competitive advantages, cost efficiencies, and is easy to use. The oil industry has experienced a positive impact from using this equipment. The industry has automatized its operations on oil inspection through drone technology (Thibault & Aoude, 2016). Previously, the result shows that the industry used weeks in inspection work. Now it is said the company is taking days to complete the job (Thibault & Aoude, 2016). The out level is increased making it more productive and efficient.
In transportation, capital has been invested in drone technology for improved infrastructure. An example is an American railroad, which is partnering with the Federal Aviation Federation Administration, to test drones to be applied for remote inspection of tracts and bridges and air quality monitoring. In the United Kingdom, drone technology is already in use and is part of the ORBIS project (Thibault & Aoude, 2016). The UK is automating its monitoring ways in the railway network in 3D to help them for a better way of planning on track maintenance and renewal.
Laws or Regulations Which Need to Be Considered
The increased use of drones globally makes countries try to incorporate them into regulations that guide the aviation framework. Although rules differ across the globe, the regulation elements remain the same in all countries. The standard examples of drone regulations include the pilot’s license, restricted zones, insurance, and aircraft registration. These requirements are not fixed but vary in terms of the mass of the drone, altitude, use, and pilot license. For small drones that are meant for recreational, license, insurance, and registration are not required. But for commercial drones sporting pilot license is standards in countries that lack defined rules.
Countries have six approaches to regulations governing the use of drones though they are not common to all countries. The first regulation approach is an outright ban, which completely bans the use of all commercial drones. Examples of these countries include Morocco, Slovenia, Cuba, and India. The second regulation approach is an effective ban. Countries using this kind of approach have a formal process for the commercial use of drone licensing, but they make the requirement impossible to meet, or the license seems to have no approval. An example of the countries includes Kenya, Chile, and Colombia; the third is the Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) constant requirement. The rules state that a drone operator must be within the pilot’s VLOS; thus, the potential range is limited. Examples of countries under the rule include Belgium and Mexico.
Moreover, the fourth approach involves the practice of beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS), which has some exemptions to the VLOS. Some of the countries under this rule include Austria and Japan (Jones, 2017). Fifth is the Permissive rule which has set guidelines and regulations on drones. Example of the countries includes Italy and Sweden. Last is the wait-and-see approach where they rely on the results seen from others countries since they have few or no rules governing the use of drones.
Cybersecurity Risks to Be Considered
Technology is susceptible to attacks, thus challenging cybersecurity in drone applications. Most drones that are in use are controlled through Wi-Fi under the IEEE 802.11 standards. Communication between the drones and the operator, situated on the ground, always applies Wi-Fi in the control of these aerial vehicles. Today, WIFIs are prone to many attacks as well as the use of chips that have no encryption. It is possible to perform a man-in-the-middle attack at a radius of 2 kilometers by using software like Skyjack.
However, in consideration of cybersecurity risks in drones, several attacks can be performed in the system. These attacks include a de-authentication attack, an attack that is performed by using technologies like air crack-ng. When a successful attack is done, the controllers no longer have control of the drone. This results in insecurity in the field of the supply chain. Another type of attack is GPS spoofing. This is possible because drone communication is based on signal sending and receiving. The use of GPS in drones helps navigation, and due to non-encryption to drone technology, the spoofing attack is possible. Lastly, in the discussion on attacks, the sniffing of signals is covered. Technology is making everything great and at the same time making vulnerability on data and risking individual and organization information. Sniffing is not possible when the drone is at a greater height, but the use of advanced technologies makes it more possible, such as the use of Wi-Fi pineapple.
Another consideration to be made involves the interdiction of unauthorized drones. In the system of drones, it is possible to launch them at any place, which requires laws that ban unlicensed equipment to safeguard people and property and avoid misuse (Vattapparamban et al., 2016). In supply chain management, if authorized personnel with a bad intention launch a drone in your organization, unauthorized surveillance and monitoring can happen. These acts threaten cybersecurity, and it is possible to perform an attack either in cyber or physical which can harm both property and civilians. This is made possible as the cost of the drone is lowering and anybody can be able to afford one.
Finally, concerns about the privacy of people and property are crucial. Drones have many advantages in supply chain management, but there is a greater concern connected to their use on privacy. In drones, it is possible to mount a camera or a capturing information device that gathers information inform of video records or pictures that may violate the privacy of people in organizations and cause defamation.
Drone technology has been applied in almost all industries, meaning its application is taking root. The application of drones is beneficial in different sectors including business, military, and agriculture. The main concern with drone technology is cybersecurity issues. Every organization aims to maintain data integrity, availability, and confidentiality, but drones are more prone to attack. Moreover, most countries have not defined clear rules on the use and licensing of commercial drones, which is vital for investors.
Atwater, D. M. (2015). The commercial global drone market: Emerging opportunities for social and environmental uses of UAVs. Graziadio Business Review, 18(2). Web.
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Jones, T. (2017). International commercial drone regulation and drone delivery services. RAND Corporation. Web.
Konert, A., Smereka, J., & Szarpak, L. (2019). The use of drones in emergency medicine: practical and legal aspects. Emergency Medicine International, 2019, 3589792. Web.
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Shahmoradi, J., Talebi, E., Roghanchi, P., & Hassanalian, M. (2020). A comprehensive review of applications of drone technology in the mining industry. Drones, 4(3), 34. Web.
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