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Drug Testing in Pharmacology

Introduction

Pharmaceutical companies that are involved in the markets in third-world countries perform drug tests within the population of these countries. Clinical trials require sufficient trial costs, therefore, these trials are performed on humans without their consent and knowledge. Surely, these experiments are inhuman, sometimes painful, and deadly, let alone other health risks if a human stays alive. Companies resort to such inhuman actions to restrict their trial expenses and cut down the research costs.

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These researches also involve deliberate infection of people, and further trial of remedies, as well as subjecting people to toxic substances, radiation, surgery, and weird mental tests, associated with mind distortion. The aim of this paper is to analyze and review these experiments, and define whether these trials are ethical, especially considering the fact that such researches help other people recover and get back to full-fledged life.

Background

The key aim of pharmaceutical companies is involved in creating remedies and drugs for improving human health. The research costs are rather high, and there are essential restrictions in most countries associated with tests on humans. In fact, most drug companies support the idea of minimal government involvement, hence, these companies do not aim to penetrate the markets of the third-world countries, as the majority of these States do not have an opportunity to buy the necessary medication. Hence, it is not human lives that pharmaceutical companies value the most.

In the light of this fact, it should be stated that medical researches associated with remedy trials may be regarded as the only opportunity for the population to get medical assistance. However, in order to make it legal and ethical, “patients” should know that they are trying a newly invented and untested remedy. The debate about the pros and cons associated with human medical experimentation strongly elicits emotions; thus, the Human Health Rights activists claim that the inhuman trial practices should be ceased. There are various regulatory practices that are imposed on pharmaceutical companies. Currently, most of the pharmaceutical industries have been under scrutiny with instilled marketing strategies. Clinical trials of drugs by the use of human beings are of significant nature to enhance fundamental skills related to the medical field as stated by Kelleher (78).

Considering the ethics of drug testing in low and middle-income countries, it should be stated that these are the double standard norms. On the one hand, people do not give their consent for testing drugs, and they are subjected to painful and inhuman surgery, on the other hand, they sacrifice their lives for the sake of the improved health of thousands of others, let alone the fact that such trials are often the only opportunity for people to get medical help.

These clinical trials are also very important because the tested individuals have an opportunity to recover and provide the necessary research background for improving the effectiveness of the remedy, for the persons with similar disorders had an opportunity to get more effective help. On the other hand, the clinical trials on human beings are potentially dangerous, as they can lead to the development of genetic violations, hence these researches are often regarded inefficient, and potentially hazardous.

Discussion

In general, the transparency associated with the clinical trials of the medicines is insufficient in most developing and third world countries. Considering the fact that global diseases develop enormously, the researches in the sphere of medications can not be helped properly and effectively within the frames of existing legislations. Therefore, the companies tend to choose territories with lesser restrictions and perform their researches for developing the entire pharmaceutical industry. Additionally, pharmaceuticals are the sphere that can not be performed using animals, as the question is not only ineffectiveness of the drugs, but also incompatibility, while this can not be defined by tests on animals. Considering the fact that most EU authorities do not control the research activity of European pharmaceutical companies abroad, and the third-world governments are not motivated enough to implement and observe the corresponding legislations, the companies feel free to perform such researches. (Ellent, 173)

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On the other hand, human trials are regarded as unethical, and the cons are more evident and numerous in comparison with pros. As a rule, contemporary researches are associated with genetic material, and some drugs affect genes. Therefore, these drugs may have long-term unregistered effects on the human body and health: if the initial tests are successful, further effects of the drugs will not be studied, and the target audience receives raw products with crucially dangerous health consequences. On the other hand, the tests may end with death, and few companies undertake compensations or insurance payments for the families of the victims. In the light of this fact, it should be stated that the actual importance of transparent drug tests practice is important for controlling the results of the researchers, as well as the possible outcomes for those who had to study drugs. Therefore, as it is stated by Shah (2):

The degree of transparency about clinical trials in low and middle-income countries is low, both with regard to the number of trials covered in public databases and with regard to the amount of information on ethical considerations for each trial. Voluntary initiatives of the pharmaceutical industry to increase transparency about clinical have clearly been insufficient in this respect.

Therefore, the general principles of research regulation should be changed, and these modifications should be related not only to the problem of illegal and unethical tests, but should also regulate the spheres of drug researches. Hence, in accordance with Schipper and Weyzig (24), the companies mainly invest in marketing, while researchers are performed in the sphere of lifestyle drugs, and life-saving remedies represent the minor sphere of pharmaceutical researches. Therefore, these unethical trials and drug tests are even not compensated by the high aims of life-saving.

Results

The key aim of pharmaceutical companies is to reduce costs associated with researches. Therefore, they prefer arranging these tests in third-world countries. The implemented strategy involves performing researches in order to develop the pharmaceutical sphere and invent remedies against the hardly curable diseases and complications. (Melanieb, 56)

The trials involve deliberate infection of people and other inhuman treatment. And this inhuman behavior and research practice can not be justified by the high aims of saving lives. This is explained by the fact that most companies are not interested in fighting the deadly diseases that kill people in third-world countries, and most of them do not pursue the aim to provide adequate medical assistance to the citizens of these countries.

References

Ellent, Hoen, Third World Network: Globalization and equitable access to essential drugs. New York: Pearson publisher 2000

Kelleher, Funnuala. The Pharmaceutical Industry’s Responsibility for Protecting Human Subjects of Clinical Trials in Developing Nations. Colombia: WSND Publication 2004

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Melanieb, Newman. Drug Regulation: Bitter pills for drug companies British Medical Journal. London: SAGE Publication. 2010

Schipper, Irene., Weyzig, Francis. Ethics for Drug Testing in Low and Middle Income Countries. Considerations for European Market Authorization. 2011. Web.

Shah, Anup. Pharmaceutical Corporations and Medical Research. “Global Issues: Social Political,Economic & enviromentalIssues that affect Us All-Global Issues. 2011. Web.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, August 5). Drug Testing in Pharmacology. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/drug-testing-in-pharmacology/

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