Leaders are vision careers. As heads of organizations, leaders are anticipated to have the ability to manage their emotions so that they (emotions) do not get out of control irrespective of the challenges that leaders go through while attempting to enhance compliance to their visions (Parker, & Sorensen, 2008, p. 13). Over the last decade, the economies of the world have experienced some of the most turbulent times in history. In fact, several countries have recently successfully emerged as business leaders in business outsourcing and contract manufacturing. In fact, they have opted to offer their services in many parts of world. Consequently, numerous questions have been posted on the effect of emotional intelligence and leadership style in the realization of this success. Scholarly researches that have been conducted regarding business leadership contend that emotional intelligence is directly correlated to organization’s performance outcome (Goleman, 1998, p.47: Parker, & Sorensen, 2008, p. 13). Guided by the results of the studies, it sounds imperative to question whether emotional intelligence is an indispensable attribute of leadership and or a necessary leadership style that translates to organizational success. Leaders have total trusts of their staff. They speak kindly and eloquently besides paying attention to the concerns of the people they work with as a team. In addition, they are ease to interact with, and have the ability to make well-informed decisions (Kerr et al., 2006, p.266: Leban & Zulauf, 2004, p.556). While these traits best describe a hypothetical leader, they are also the traits of people who have elevated levels of emotional aptitude. Stemming from this argument, the paper poses the question of whether there exists a solid link between emotional intelligence and leadership styles. The proposed research also endeavors to examine and evaluate how styles of leadership that are deployed by leaders are related to their emotional intelligence. The aim is to determine whether emotional intelligence has impacts on leadership styles. To realize this aim, literature review on how emotional intelligence influences contemporary issues surrounding emotional intelligence and leadership styles is conducted. In the proposed research, this information will assist in providing a clear guideline for research by focusing on the influences, trends, and factors applying to variables of the research study: emotional intelligence and leadership styles. This paper, therefore, conducts a literature review of scholarly work on the topic of emotional intelligence and leadership styles as a milestone for conducting a meta-analysis research on the link between emotional intelligence and leadership style in an effort to confirm the theory that emotional intelligence enhances the effectiveness of leaders.
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In the proposed research, a collection of scholarly works on leadership styles and emotional intelligence will be critically analyzed to establish the findings on the link between emotional intelligence and leadership styles. In this endeavor, the reliability and validity of the studies considered is crucial. For this purpose, an effort will be made to determine whether the results that are obtained from the different data collection methodologies are valid and reliable in relation to others by selecting scholarly works or utilization in the literature review that only bears the search terms emotional intelligence and leadership style. This literature review therefore will be carried as a search on the relevant publications detailing the connection between leadership style and emotional intelligence. The search will be conducted using the various key words set out in the introduction followed by a thorough scrutiny of the literature found for any relevant reference materials. Analysis will follow with only the publications made in the English language being included. The reason for the choice of this methodology is due to the limitation of time and the effectiveness obtained in previous studies (Parker & Sorensen, 2008, p. 13).
This research rests on the theoretical hypothesis that emotional intelligence may act to enhance the effectiveness of leaders. Therefore, a review of the scholarly works on leadership styles and emotional intelligence in the proposed research is conducted with anticipations of finding a direct relationship between leadership styles and emotional intelligence. However, depending on the findings of the authors of the scholarly works considered in literature review, this anticipated finding is hypothetical and hence subject to confirmation thus making a critical analysis of the literally works essential
Leadership is the vessel utilized by organizations to gain success in terms of performance. Since leadership sets the visions for any organization, the feelings and perceptions of people are essential to be incorporated in the developed visions. From this argument, effectiveness of leaders is measureable from the extent to which she or he articulates the ways of thought and feelings of people into the leadership visions. Indeed, effective leadership is an essential element in a rapidly changing organization. This kind of leadership has been identified as being fostered by emotional intelligence (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001, p.98). Arguably, in this sense, emotional intelligence defines the capacity of leaders perceived as effective to analyze people’s feelings and perceptions in an effort to enact an appropriate strategy to align them to the common organizational goal. To proactively understand these feelings and perceptions of people towards certain phenomenal issues that are of public interest and or organizational interest, interaction between leaders and people being led is necessary. This claim calls for participatory style of leadership. Hence, emotional intelligence and leadership style become related.
In the context of the above argument, an impression is created for scholarly agreement on the definition of emotional intelligence. Unfortunately, this is not the case since, even although emotional intelligence may be an essential characteristic of an effective leadership, its harmonious definition is nonexistent. For instance, Palmer et al. (2001) defines emotional intelligence as the capacity to comprehend, acknowledge, and handle both one’s own and other people’s feelings (p.5). From this perspective, emotions are personal feelings that may give rise to conflicts between people working in an organization. Arguably, in the context of this definition, the main role of leadership in an organization is to mitigate incidences of occurrence of conflicts instigated by differences in feelings and perceptions of people that he or she leads. From a nursing context, Smith, Profetto-McGrath, and Cummings (2009) define emotional intelligence as an aspect that enables leaders to develop the capacity to control and monitor the performance of the subordinates without infliction of fear and prejudice to them. In this context, emotional intelligence encompasses the capabilities that are distinct though complementary to cognitive or intelligence capabilities that may be measured by intelligence quotients. Therefore, emotional intelligence is an essential quality that enables a leader to proactively understand the environment in which he or she works. This environment is characterized by people with different aspirations, understanding, and mechanisms of responding to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. In this regard, emotional intelligence is crucial in helping a leader to identify the likely ways of responding to the stimuli particularly the response that would prejudice the operation of an organization, which she or he leads.
The above argument links with Cote et al. (2010) insight that emotional competences are essential in aiding to shape the employees’ perceptions in their work and reflections of their needs (p.497). The question is how the components of emotional intelligence relate with the success of an organization since an appropriate leadership style is the one that would enhance the performance of an organization. Goleman’s extensive research on emotional intelligence gives a response to this query. He found that both technical skill and intelligence quotient contributed much in the determination of job performance of a manager. In this regard, emotional intelligence is directly correlated with job performance (Goleman, 1995: Goleman, 1998). Based on these findings, effective leadership entails complex processes often characterized by influence processes, interaction of various actors (followers and leaders), and a range of myriads of possible anticipated outcomes. In an organization, leaders play a variety of roles including serving as sources of inspirations, inducing organization changes through corporate leadership, and serving as the main sources of organizations’ power and visions.
One of the dominant questions in the discussion of emotional intelligence and leadership styles is how emotional intelligence can help a leader to derive an effective leadership style. To answer this question, it is crucial to consider some of the works that have been forthcoming on the field of psychology. For instance, according to Abraham, the results of his work in this field showed that emotional intelligence and satisfaction at the workplace are related in an intimate way (2000, p. 19). He describes that emotionally intelligence leaders are thought to be more committed to the organizational functions, and are happier in effect compared to their colleagues with an overall better achievement of organizational goals (2000, p. 29). Several publishers and researchers in the same field share these sentiments, and there are broad and general agreements that the degree of emotional intelligence is relatively proportional to leadership qualities and style portrayed at the workplace (Abraham, 2000, p. 28).
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Individuals who are emotionally intelligent are also described as able to “take advantage and use of positive emotions to envision substantial improvements in organizational functioning” (George, 2000, p.12: Dulewicz, 2003, pp.193-210). George also stated that these individuals “use emotions to improve their decision-making in a bid to instill a sense of enthusiasm, trust, and co-operation in other employees through interpersonal relationships (2000). Arguably, Dulewicz and George intertwine emotional intelligence with the subject-oriented form of leadership.
Research that relates effective leadership styles and emotional intelligence in the workplace has mainly focused on the effects of emotional intelligence on leadership styles. For example, Burns (1978) stated two leadership styles that were of significance (p. 29) for any emotionally intelligent leader. The first one that Burns stated was transformational leadership where the leader raises the “needs and motivations of followers besides promoting dramatic changes in individuals, groups, and organizations” (Parker, & Sorensen, 2008, p. 13). The second leadership style that Burns stated as being influenced by the emotional intelligence is transactional leadership. A transactional leader was defined as a person who has the ability to predispose people to deploy behaviors that are transformational in their work environments (Burns, 1978, p. 12). Arguably, from the perspective of Burns, emotionally intelligent leaders adopt transformational and transactional forms of leadership.
Bass advances Burns’ characterization of emotional leaders. In his literature, he integrates transactional and transformational leadership with the suggestion that they are incredible tools for perceiving various situations accurately, with emotional expressions, appraising, accessing, and generating various emotions especially when emotions are the determinants of thoughts and decision-making processes adopted by individuals (Bass, 1985, p. 38: Higgs, 2003, pp. 273-284). Bass’s description of the two styles of leadership are not remarkably different from those by Burns since he tries to further the aspects that Burns had tried to explain about these leadership styles (1985). According to him, a transformational leader possesses a high degree of emotional intelligence and is able to perceive and evaluate the extents to which various anticipations of subordinates can be attained in an accurate way (Bass, 1985, p. 38). Bass then described a transactional leader as “one who prefers a leader-member exchange relationship whereby the leader fulfils the needs of followers in exchange for their performance thus meeting the basic expectations” (1985, p.29). Arguably, the needs of the followers discussed by Bass are influenced by individualistic interpretations of various phenomena. In this interpretation, emotional intelligence plays a pivotal role.
These leadership styles highlighted above were described in detail by other authors after Bass and Burns. In fact, Lowe and Kroeck (1996) state that transformational leaders are focused on finding new ways of working by creating new opportunities in the organizations. Emotional intelligence is evident in this assertion since these leaders prefer effectiveness to efficacy (p. 23). These are also the styles of leaders who “orient their subordinates towards performance beyond the established standards and goals-emphasizing employee empowerment rather than dependence” (Lowe & Kroeck, 1996, p. 98). For transactional leadership, Lowe and Kroeck described this style as one where the leader the headship is exercised on a leader-member basis with the head meeting the demands of his or her people in return for their exemplary performance thus achieving the objectives of his or organization (1996, p. 37). The leader also prefers risk-avoidance. Such a leader will instill self-assurance in the people he or she leads in a bid to motivate them to meet the set goals and objectives (Lowe & Kroeck 1996, p. 98). Amid the discussions of transactional and transformational leadership as pillars of emotionally intelligent leaders, it is arguable that, for the success of an organization in a dynamic environment, it is desirable that all organizational stakeholders uphold concepts of change management. However, it is important to note that the noble role of a leader is to initiate and ensure that change management is inculcated at all the hierarchical structures of the organization that he or she leads. To achieve this goal, understanding the perceptions of the people being led is crucial. This requirement calls for possession of emotional intelligence traits in leaders.
In this different model or style of leadership, Yammarino et al argue that there is a negative connection existing between emotional cleverness and people’s output (1993, p. 25). According to the description given in the study done by Yammarino et al, the leaders “are absent when needed, avoid accepting responsibility, and fail to follow up on subordinates’ requests for assistance” (1993, p. 29). This argument may be interpreted to mean that leaders shun from engaging in situations that hold them responsible for failures to achieve certain prescribed things. Therefore, they only want to associate with success. However, an emotionally intelligent leader would want to dig deep into the root causes of failures. Hence, he or she would assume responsibility for failures though working hard to ensure that such failures would not recur in the future. This case gives rise to the query- between transactional and transformational leadership style, which one gives rise to more effective and emotionally intelligent leaders? Lowe and Kroeck offered a suggestion to this question when they concluded in their research that transformational leadership is more effective in organizations compared to the transactional style of leadership (1996, p. 49). The relationship between these styles of leadership and emotional intelligence was studied in details especially by Ashforth and Humphrey (1995) who noted, “transformational leadership appears to be dependent upon the evocation, framing, and mobilization of emotions whereas transactional leadership appears to be more dependent upon subordinates’ cognitions by tending to follow a rational model of motivation” (p. 46). House et al (1988) later seconded the findings and proposed the model of transformational leadership as one that has a strong link with the output of people (p. 37).
Salovey and Mayer (1990, p. 10) stated that emotional intelligence regarding to the styles of leadership that involves the capacity of a leader to monitor the myriads of emotions of a person and those of other people in relation with the components of transformational leadership such as idealized behaviors. They also showed how “individual differences exist in emotional intelligence by being brought about by the individual’s ability to appraise the emotions of others and our own” (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 10). In the effort to ensure that leaders achieve their duties, it is essential that they appreciate that their precise achievement of job requirements is dependent on their capacity to learn from their followers the things they do not know and which may influence the success of the organizations that they lead. This case can only happen if the leaders in question are able to understand people’s concerns through opening up new ideas, revelations, and insights.
George (2000) described the researches made in the demonstration of the relationships between leadership and emotional intelligence. According to her, most of studies examining this relationship have always been focused on how leaders are, what they do in their workplaces, and the decisions they make (George, 2000). George also suggested a direct correlation between competences (emotional intelligence) of project managers with their levels of attentiveness to details (2000, p. 18). Her argument was that emotional intelligence serves to enhance the problem solving ability of leaders, which in turn helps them make crucial decisions relating to organizations in which they work (George, 2000, p. 19). She further suggests that leaders who make positive decisions for the organizations they work in and or envision improvement have higher emotional intelligence compared to those that do not (George, 2000, p.23). Her work also led her to conclude that a chairperson with high levels of emotional intelligence can assess the emotions of his or her people in a bid to determine what they need to improve their performance (2000, p. 27).
In the review, another significant finding relating to leadership styles and emotional intelligence was found in George’s discussion of theoretical relationships between emotional intelligence and effective leadership (2000, p. 28). He proposed that performance in the working environment is enhanced by greater self-awareness, and the capacity to detect the feelings and attitude of other people thus making the leaders aware of any fake emotions in the people (2000, p. 32). Her argument therefore was that leaders can effectively guide and motivate their subordinates by using emotions and that effective management of emotions is crucial in the handling of ob-related stresses and other problems at the workplace (p. 38). Barling et al. (2000) and Palmer et al. (2001) present some of the most significant empirical studies conducted on the relationship of emotional intelligence and effective leadership and leadership styles. The study that is highlighted by Barling et al. (2000) examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and the two leadership paradigms of transformational and transactional leadership described by Bass (1985). Their study culminated in the suggestion, “emotional intelligence predisposes leaders to use transformational behaviors” (Barling et al p. 34).
Palmer et al (2001) are also did studies on the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational/transactional leadership styles. In the comparison of the two styles that they did, they concluded, “transformational leadership is considered to be more emotion based (involving heightened emotional levels) than transactional leadership and that there should be a stronger relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership than with transactional leadership” (2001, p. 7). The distinction between leadership and management is one of the scholarly areas that have attracted an intense attention. Early researches in this area presumed that leadership was synonymous to management. However, with consideration of the roles and the scope of the two areas, it is now evident that leaders are different from managers. Managers are more interested in the mechanisms that ensure that organizations succeed in the context of anticipated future uncertainties by enhancing their profitability. One particular observation was of significance (2001, p. 5). In the correlation bit, they stated, “the ability to monitor and manage emotions in oneself and others were both significantly correlated with the inspirational motivation and individualized consideration components of transformational leadership” (Palmer et al., 2001, p. 3). These parameters are some of the significant researches relating leadership styles and emotional intelligence. They are inclined towards positive and negative correlation between aspects in organizational leadership.
Weiberge (2009) conducted a research aiming to compare and evaluate the level of emotional intelligence exhibited by managers and or how this level related to their performance at their workplace by testing leaders using the MSCEIT (p.747). The managers were “asked to complete the MLQ5x on their perceptions of their managers’ leadership style and leadership effectiveness” (p.747). The main aim of the research was to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership. The findings of the research indicated that the managers’ perceived effectiveness was not related to emotional intelligence. Bolden (2007) differs with these findings by arguing that the effectiveness of leaders is a function of some specific circumstances coupled with how leaders blend their leadership styles over time (p.3). However, he maintains that misuse or even overuse of specific leadership styles may truncate into ineffectiveness, which may offset the already established organizational climate (Bolden, 2007, p.5).
Organizational climate encompasses things such as flexibility, the sense of responsibility, clarity, commitment compliance to standards, and a sense of accuracy in performance feedbacks. Based on these elements of a good organizational atmosphere, Kellerman (2004) argues that leaders deserve to develop various leadership styles including affirmative, facilitative, visionary versus authoritative, conceive or commanding coaching, democratic, and coaching (p. 29). Each of these styles is appropriate for specific desired outcomes. For instance, according to Hogan and Hogan (2001), where high standards for performance are set in an organization, commanding or coercive leadership style is required to achieve them faster and consistently with the established standards of quality (p.43). This means that the main concern of a leader operating in such an organization would only be focused on inducing a culture of compliance. Considering the definitions of emotional intelligence offered by Palmer et al. (2001) and Smith, Profetto-McGrath, and Cummings (2009), coercive leadership is an impediment to leadership guided by the perspectives of emotional intelligence.
Based on Goleman’s study that confirms that emotional intelligence is an essential factor for determining the effectiveness of a leader, Barbara and Shilpa (2003) sought to study the relationship between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence. The main aim of the research was to find out any gender variations in the connection between transformational headship tactics and emotional cleverness of different leaders (Barbara & Shilpa, 2003, p.387). The researchers found out that a predicative significant relationship of p<0.05 existed between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership styles. While predicting transformational styles of leadership, the researchers did not find any significant interactions (p>0.05) between emotional intelligence and gender. However, there was a considerable variation between the two parameters for the various managers based on their gender (Barbara & Shilpa, 2003, p.387). The research also established that women and men managers had no considerable variations (p>0.05) in their transformational leadership scores. These results indicate that, while transformational leadership styles may be related to emotional intelligence, the relationship is not determined by the existing gender differences among managers.
As a leadership style, transformational leadership has received an incredible attention within the last decade. Many scholars see it as one of the most essential areas of leadership research (Alvesson & Deetz, 2000, p.16). This prominence is associated with the calls of flexible and adaptive leaders who are able to work in an effective way especially in a rapidly changing operational environment (Bass et al, 2003, p.208). The researcher argues that such kind of leadership is what constitutes transformational leadership by further asserting (Bass, 2003, p. 209). The significance of transformational leadership is also noted by Alimo-Metcalfe who retaliates, “leadership has experienced a considerable reinterpretation from representing an authority relationship…to a process of influencing followers or staff by inspiring them or pulling them towards the vision of some future state (this model of leadership is referred to as transformational)” (2004, p.7). Considering the importance of transformational leadership in an organization that operates in a dynamic environment, questions emerge on the relationship between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence.
Parker and Sorensen (2008) conducted a research on the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership styles using 43 leaders from various positions and knowledge (Parker & Sorensen, 2008, p.137). Data was collected through ‘Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory’ coupled with ‘Avolio’s Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire’. The participants were then put into four categories following the general emotional cleverness and performance of transformational or transactional headship. Comparison of the groups was then conducted. The statistical comparison of the four groups indicated, “Highly significant difference between the groups existed, and hence it was concluded that a strong relationship existed between high levels of EI and high levels of transformational or transactional leadership styles” (Parker & Sorensen, 2008, p.137). This exposition implies that scores in EI may help in predicting the leadership style adopted by a manager. For high scores in transformational or transactional leadership, it means, “leaders deploying this style are also likely to have high scores in EQi” (Parker & Sorensen, 2008, p.137). However, the research findings are not indicative of the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership styles since Parker and Sorensen (2008) found no evidence that would explain the causal direction that would help in providing an explanation whether EI may contribute to a particular type of leadership and or vice versa (p.139).
Leadership scholars contend, “Transformational leadership energizes groups to persist when conditions are unpredictable, difficult, and stressful” (Bass and Avolio, 2002, p.102). According these scholars, leaders play a variety of roles including serving as sources of inspirations, inducing organization changes through corporate leadership, and serving as the main sources of organizations’ power and visions (Bass & Avolio, 2002, p.105). Arguably, this finding suggests that leadership styles are closely linked with objectives and goal achievement. Bass et al (2003) add evidence that, in the effort to ensure that leaders achieve their duties, it is essential that they appreciate that their precise achievement of job requirements is dependent on their capacity to learn from their followers the things they do not know and which may influence the success of the organizations that they lead. The research also evidences that the passive-avoidant leadership style is negatively correlated to group satisfaction, group commitment, and group performance. Stemming from the findings of Bass et al (2003), frameworks of studying the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership styles are established. Several researchers including Leban and Zulauf (2004), Barling et al (2000), and Palmer et al (2001) identify the validity of such a research. Scholarly evidence exists showing that both transactional and transformational leadership skills and emotional intelligence are reachable and trainable. This possibility points at deducing that leadership profiles developed can be applied practically by managers.
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In a more recent work by Goleman, emotional intelligence has been found as beneficial relative to ones position in the hierarchy of leadership in an organization (Boyatzis & McKee, 2005, p.43). Through the presentation of the results of two preliminary publications (IQ and Technical Skills and Emotional Intelligence), Dulewicz (2003) provides further evidence for this notion (p.204). The notion explains why many of the researches in leadership development over the last one decade have focused squarely on looking for a formula and strategies that would enable executives and managers to become aware of themselves and others. The formula requires them (executives and managers) to hike the levels of their self-management and or understand themselves or put differently to increase their emotional intelligence. In this context, emotional intelligence provides an anchorage and a substrate for the development of various leadership styles depending on the qualities and aspects of emotional intelligence that are deployed by a specific leader. Various scholars have established measurement instruments for gauging people’s emotional intelligence. Despite the fact that the measurements obtained from the emotional intelligence test instruments indicate that a connection may exist between emotional intelligence and possession of various skills and abilities that are related to excellence in leadership, they do not provide a definitive and sufficient evidence to prove that leaders who have high levels of EI are indeed influential. Being a better leader implies having the capacity to use an appropriate leadership style to suit different situations in the work environments.
Contributions of the Review in the Research Field
This paper contributes in the research field in that it adds paradigms of relating specific aspects of emotional intelligence with specific leadership styles among leaders in emerging economies. This contribution is significant since the existing body of literature indicates that emotional intelligence is an essential factor that determines ones leadership style. For the continued growth of countries as business destinations as pointed out in the paper, a leadership style that works to facilitate a change of their economic state from developing to developed economies is needed. Emotional intelligence may be one of the essential elements that may lead to the creation of an alternative leadership style that may help in the realization of visions with regard to countries’ business in the various continents. For instance, it suffices for countries to have their economic vision anchored on the paradigms of being knowledge based (Lowe & Kroeck 1996, p. 98). In addition, the work of David Goleman established that emotional intelligence is possible to measure and hence study (1995, p.97). Following the close association of the emotional intelligence with effective leadership in profit-oriented organizations as revealed by many scholars, the research paper would help much to investigate whether non-profit organizations can equally benefit from the same. Non-profit organizations consistently face the challenges of depleted funding and resources, which require them to employ successful and dynamic leaders. These leaders are forced to find creative solutions to budget restraints and resource cuts on a daily basis. A major problem that comes up in this endeavor is that few leaders display or have the ability and tenacity to maintain a thriving non-profit organization regardless of the economic environment. Consequently, a research associated with emotional intelligence and leadership skills of nonprofit leaders will help to guide nonprofit executives better in making the correct hiring decisions that will allow their organizations to survive and even thrive in a primarily grant-dependent environment. Through studying and identifying, which leadership skills are required for non-profit success and or how emotional intelligence affects them, the research on this subject will help in getting appropriate leaders who possess high magnitudes of EI to be hired in the first time. This strategy will have the impact of making organizations better prepared for the unpredictable environment of the non-profit arena. Moreover, theorizing how leaders can proactively interact with the people being led to understand issues that may give rise to conflicts is critical for the realization of this vision. The concept of emotional intelligence coupled with how it may lead to the deployment of a leadership style that can facilitate the achievement of this vision remains vital. For this reason, research is necessary to determine how leadership styles such as participatory leadership, transactional, and transformational leadership among others link with emotional intelligence. Rather than considering the roles of EI in leadership in general, the research will offer a new focus of examining the significance of EI in styles of leadership. In this extent, EI will be an incredible tool for perceiving various situations accurately. It will come in handy in detecting emotional expressions, appraising, accessing, and or generating various emotions especially when emotions are determinants of thoughts and decisions making processes adopted by individual. EI will prove essential in enhancing the capacity of leaders to cutely understand a myriad of workplace emotions. Therefore, the research on EI and its link with leadership styles will help leaders to develop emotional knowledge coupled with the capacity to regulate emotions in a bid to help in managing and promoting emotional intellectual growth. The works of Weiberge (2009) suggests that individuals have differences articulated to “ability to appraise their own emotions and those of others” (p.758). These findings suggest that people who have high EI levels have better ability to open up to organizational internal and external experiences that may impede success. These findings are significant and crucial in the context of organizational leadership since the success of a leader in executing his or her mandates is dependent on the ability of such a leader to handle various emotional stimuli. The said stimuli can emerge in the day-to-day operations of an organization. If EI is well applied in an organization, such a stimuli will not affect the productivity of workers in the organization. In general, this paper provides the fundamental basis for explaining the relevance of such a research in the attainment of organizational success. While conducting such a research, the challenge would be to relate the research questions with topics of emotional intelligence and leadership styles with particular focus on the mutually benefiting countries.
Based on the expositions made in the paper, it is clear that leadership requires the ability to interact with the people being led or the subjects to understand their feelings, ways of thought, and perceptions towards myriads of issues that may affect the performance of an organization. Through introspection of literature on emotional intelligence and leadership styles, the paper finds that such leaders need to be emotionally intelligent. Emotionally intelligent leaders provide clear and concise guidance based on what people feel and think about certain organizational issues that may attract conflicts. Besides, emotionally intelligent leaders allow people to do their jobs effectively through making compromises. In this context, the paper finds effective leadership as being linked with transactional and transformational leadership styles. However, there is a need to explore this relationship as it applies to countries that interact closely in terms of business. In the attempt to seal this gap, the proposed research seeks to study how leadership styles portrayed by leaders relate with their emotional intelligences as far as their business interaction is concerned. In this study, a serious challenge would entail relating the research questions with specific topics of emotional intelligence and leadership styles. However, as discussed above, the revelation of the link between EI and leadership techniques will help much in the realization of organizations’ aims and objectives.
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