Epidemiologic methods refer to various concepts applicable in finding the causes of illnesses and other health issues in a population. An infectious disease can be transmitted to other organisms upon their exposure to the host. Movement from one host to another relies on the theory that organisms are within a setting which allows random mixing. Therefore, the prevention of infectious diseases is necessary to reduce the spread and consequences of such illnesses. This research focuses on epidemiologic concepts, theoretical frameworks, and study designs in the context of infectious diseases. This study aims to analyze the epidemiology of infectious diseases. It also recommends the methods minimizing virus spread and transmission.
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Statement of the Problem. Infectious illnesses comprise the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. Their transmission is attributed to human civilization, including urbanization and animals’ domestication (Huremvic, 2019). These factors led to the spread of airborne bacterial and viral infections, which are currently detrimental to human life.
Significance of the Problem. This research problem is significant as it guides the elucidation of the social context of the severity of infectious diseases, apart from analyzing the probable methods of controlling viral spread and transmission.
Review of Literature
Tools and Concepts of Epidemiology: A wide array of public health concepts are available to aid disease investigation and wellness studies. The main approaches include laboratory methods, web-based reporting, and mapping (Giesecke, 2017). These methods help identify the causes of a medical condition, assess the mortality and morbidity of a given population, understand the history and course of an illness, and evaluate the impacts of therapeutic, diagnostic, and preventive measures of a public health course. Epidemiologic tools and concepts provide empirical evidence for the development of a public health policy to improve a population’s wellness.
The Main Study Designs in Epidemiology: Observational and experimental research designs are significant in studying infectious disease epidemiology (Western University, n. d.; Rumpf et al., 2019). Most researchers use relatively small samples, increasing random errors in infectious disease studies. Using inappropriate assessment tools and failing to include proactive recruitment increase systematic errors, apart from compromising standardized diagnostic procedures.
Screening and Assessment of Infectious Diseases: Infectious disease testing requirements and acceptable screening assays undergo timely changes. Patient assessment and outbreak investigation should be tailored to the origin of the subject population. At the same time, regulatory demands and medical practices should guide screening and assessment decisions.
A disease is infectious if pathogens have multiplied within the host and become transmittable upon exposure of other organisms to the host. This study revealed that contagious infections are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in human history. Observational and experimental research designs are applicable were found significant in the study of such illnesses. The notable examples of epidemiologic tools in this research include mapping, web-based reporting, and laboratory experiments. They are instrumental in identifying diseases and developing related public health policies. The literature reviewed revealed that non-proactive recruitment, insufficient samples, and unsound tools compromise epidemiologic methods.
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Recommendations. Infectious Disease Control: Decontamination of individuals and disinfection of environments contagious is fundamental in infectious disease control. It is necessary to isolate individuals exposed to contagious diseases apart from vector control and hygiene observation (Tang et al., 2017).
Epidemiologic Methods: Researchers should use proper assessment tools and significant samples to prevent random errors. Adequate assessment of cofounding variables is necessary to avoid systemic bias in the study of contagious infections (Rumpf et al., 2019).
Giesecke, J. (2017). Modern infectious disease epidemiology. CRC Press.
Huremović, D. (2019). A brief history of pandemics (pandemics throughout history). In Psychiatry of Pandemics (pp. 7-35). Cham.
Rumpf, H. J., Brandt, D., Demetrovics, Z., Billieux, J., Carragher, N., Brand, M.,… & Poznyak, V. (2019). Epidemiological challenges in the study of behavioral addictions: A call for high standard methodologies. Current Addiction Reports, 6(3), 331-337.
Tang, P., Croxen, M. A., Hasan, M. R., Hsiao, W. W., & Hoang, L. M. (2017). Infection control in the new age of genomic epidemiology. American Journal of Infection Control, 45(2), 170-179.
Western University (n. d.). Epidemiological observational studies. Schulich Medicine and Dentistry. Web.