Multiple Myeloma is the phenomenon, which requires continuous attention, as it changes over particular time. Doctors were trying to find the possible cure for the disease since 1960s1. Additionally, it could be said that this blood disease is widespread, as it is “the second most frequent blood malignancy” in the United States of America1.
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A primary goal of this research paper is to discover the causes, prevalence, pathophysiology, and a relation of the laboratory data to the determination of the disease of multiple myeloma. It is essential to analyze each aspect precisely to establish potential treatment for the disease. In the end, summary and conclusions are drawn.
Cause of Multiple Myeloma
It was hard to identify the original reason for the existence and development of multiple myeloma, as the disease was rather complex, and the origin was hard to determine. However, it became apparent that B cells are the primary sources of the illness and distribution of the tumor since these cells have the ability to divide rapidly2. Now it is clear that it is necessary to stop the production and distribution of the disease with the assistance of elimination of B cells, which spread the disease to the healthy blood cells.
As for the prevalence, it is the second blood malfunction disease in the United States of America1. Moreover, the average age for the disease diagnosis is around 61-62 years old for men and women1. The case of this illness occurs rather often in the United States of America. However, it is apparent that multiple myeloma has a tendency to exist in the other countries. Another interesting fact, which was revealed, is that the disease has a tendency to occur more with men than in women1. Nonetheless, the dependency on the sex, race, and location has not been revealed, as the disease coverage remains high in the world.
As for the pathophysiology, multiple myeloma is characterized by the excessive number of the bone marrow cells, bone fracturing, renal malfunction, and lack of sufficient functioning of the immune system1. However, it has to be mention that multiple myeloma has a tendency to progress and change its appearance in the different stages of development. One of the examples of the multiple myeloma final progression is the plasma cell leukemia, as the function of bone marrow cell production is significantly disturbed.
Relation of laboratory data to diagnosis of disease
As for the relevance of the laboratory testing, it is apparent that myeloma protein is diagnosed in the patient’s serum4. It is apparent that the presence of the myeloma protein helps determine the existence of multiple myeloma in the cells of the patient. The protein can be located in urine or serum of the patient1. Moreover, hyperkalemia also takes place, as it is connected to the serum escalation3. Additionally, the laboratory testing has to show the increased level of creatnine1. It is apparent that changes in the patient laboratory data contribute to the existence of the multiple myeloma if the analysis has all the required characteristics mentioned above.
Summary and Conclusion
It is apparent that the spread of the disease will continue to evolve. The prognosis of the illness depends on the stage of the diagnosis3. It is apparent that the patients, who were diagnosed in the first phase, have more chances to survive and live in prosperity than patients with the later diagnosis.
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As for the treatment, one of the possible treatments is ASCT, as alkylators might have an adverse effect on the stem formation3. In this case, several cycles of induction therapy are required. Nevertheless, if the ASCT treatment is not possible, “oral regimen MP” is used to avoid high levels of the intoxication3. Nonetheless, the chosen treatment depends on whether the patient has complications. In this instance, such medicine as glucocorticoids, alkylators, and thalidomide can be used.
- Raab MS, Podar K, Breitkreutz I, Richardson P, Anderson KC. Multiple myeloma: The Lancet. 2009; 374(9686):324-339.
- Khabir A. Unique B cells cause multiple myeloma: Lancet Onc. 2004; 5(1):3.
- Rajkumar SV, Kyle RA. Multiple myeloma: diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005; 80(10):1371-82.
- Murphy K. Immunobiology. 8th ed. New York: Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC; 2012.