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Evidence-Based Practice: Nusring

Introduction

Evidence-based practice is one of the recommended clinical practices that health practitioners should follow in administering clinical services. The World Health Organization and national health bodies have continuously advocated for the application of this approach. However, there have been claims that some nurses do not follow this approach. Instead, they use their knowledge and experience in administering clinical services (You et al., 2013). This paper will have two main parts. The first section will address the use of evidence-based practice among nurses in the USA and Norway. In the second section, four articles will be analyzed individually and appraised critically.

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Evidence-Based Practice

Health care decisions should be based on the current findings. This allows for the correct approach to be adopted for each health problem. According to Stokke, Olsen, Espehaug, and Nortvedt (2014), research findings are the basis for taking any action on health care. Hong (2010) indicates that some nurses opt to use the knowledge obtained through education and past experiences to provide medical services. This could be attributed to a lack of appreciation of the use of evidence-based practice and laxity in the implementation of various recommended approaches to health care.

In a study conducted by Hong (2010) on the evidence-based practice of nurses in the USA, it was revealed that the use of literature and other related references provided a good basis for making decisions after the collection of enough information and analysis of the results obtained. According to Hong (2010), it is a commendable practice where nurses are advised to take decisions only after careful examination, followed by a proper analysis of the findings and the use of available references. In so doing, nurses will be assured that they have addressed the problem in the best way possible. Stokke et al. (2014) conducted a similar study on Norwegian nurses. They aimed to identify the relationship between beliefs about evidence-based practice and their implementation among nurses. It was found out that Norwegian nurses had strong beliefs on the application of evidence-based practice, but the implementation of this practice was not satisfactory. To this effect, Stokke et al. (2014) recommend that nurses should implement the use of the evidence-based practice to provide a credible basis for making clinical decisions among nurses.

Bibliography

Study #1; Nursing Research Study in the USA

Jones, S. G., Patsdaughter, C. A., Jorda, M. L., Hamilton, M., & Malow, R. (2008). Senoritas: An HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention project for Latina college students at a Hispanic-Serving University. Journal of the Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 19(4), 311-319. 

The purpose of this study is not explicitly stated. However, in the introduction, one can quickly identify the purpose of this study as being the identification of effective means to reduce the individual HIV risk reduction among Hispanic college students at Florida International University.

The target population is explicitly stated as being the Hispanic students within Florida International University. A concerted effort has been made to relate the institution with Hispanic students. It is evident from the introduction that the institution chosen was the best among the available institutions for this study. The fact that Florida International University is more of a Hispanic college attracting students from the 50 states and other countries befits the college for this study. This college had an enrollment of about 58.4% Hispanics in 2007. Besides, the number of Hispanic students who enrolled for an undergraduate course in nursing was 61.7% in 2007 (Jones, Patsdaughter, Jorda, Hamilton, & Malow, 2008). This indicates that Florida International University is a favorite institution for Hispanic students. The curriculum adopted for teaching nursing students about HIV prevention was rolled out in 2004, where 52 senior nursing students were requested to volunteer as peer educators. The method used to select the sample size was effective, given the fact that a certificate was promised to be offered at the end of the project. This attracted many students from among the different ethnic groups that were taking the nursing undergraduate degree course.

The methods used to collect data in this project are not given. One has to read almost the whole article to comprehend the methods employed in data collection. However, one can follow the chronological account of how data was collected from the onset of the project in 2004. It is commendable that data relevant for this study was collected. For example, respondents were asked whether they used condoms during sexual intercourse, a question that is relevant to an HIV reduction study. Those who did not prefer the use of condoms during sex were asked to narrate why they opted for unsafe sex. The answers given to these questions were relevant in developing future curricula for use in HIV prevention.

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The main findings from the study are applicable in the fight against HIV infection. One of the conclusions indicated that some of the college students do not use condoms during sexual intercourse due to the fact that the latex type of condom tends to cause itching and redness on one’s private parts (Jones et al., 2008). This information is useful to manufacturers, who can ensure that future latex condoms do not cause itching and reddening.

Study #2; Nursing Research Study in Non-USA

You, L. M., Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., Liu, K… & He, G. P. (2013). Hospital nursing, care quality, and patient satisfaction: Cross-sectional surveys of nurses and patients in hospitals in China and Europe. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(2), 154-161. 

One can identify the purpose of this study as being an evaluation of the utilization of nurses in Chinese Hospitals. A comparison was to be done with data from a similar study conducted in European Hospitals.

Nurses from 181 Chinese hospitals were chosen as the respondents. The hospitals selected were staggered through all the economic zones within Mainland China. Care was exercised to ensure that both level 2 and level 3 hospitals were put into consideration (You et al., 2013). Nurses were selected from a minimum of four units in each identified hospital to ensure that nurses from different departments were represented. It was a good strategy because every category of nurses from both rural and urban areas was represented in the study. Patients from the same hospitals in which nurses were chosen were selected, with 30 patients in each hospital being the target. In total, 9688 nurses and 5786 patients responded to the questionnaires, giving responsive rates of 95% and 89% respectively.

The methods used to collect data can be said to be valid for this study. Nurses were categorized based on their level of education. They were then asked to rate the performance of their units, where the ratio of patient-to-nurse was considered in the rating. Patients were asked whether the method of communication between them and caregivers was useful. The data was then analyzed using STATA 11. The information given in the study regarding data collection shows that a concerted effort in data collection was made, and the correct procedures for data collection and analysis were followed.

The results showed that close to half of the nurses were dissatisfied with their job, and 45% of them recorded dissatisfaction. About 76% accounted for low salaries as the primary source of career dissatisfaction, with 61% indicating that the poor working conditions were to blame for their dissatisfaction. Only 54% of patients reported satisfaction with the kind of communication that they had with the nurses. The results given in this study were relevant to the purpose of the study. There is a close relationship between the results and the purpose given.

Study #3; Nursing Research Study in Non- USA

Stokke, K., Olsen, N. R., Espehaug, B., & Nortvedt, M. W. (2014). Evidence-based practice beliefs and implementation among nurses: A cross-sectional study. BMC Nursing, 13(8), 1-12. 

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The purpose of this study was given, where the researchers were identifying the relationship between the beliefs of the evidence-based practice and the implementation of the same. A concerted effort has been made to relate the purpose of this study to the internationally accepted practice.

A cross-sectional sampling technique was used to sample nurses in a cancer specialist hospital at a university in Norway. A total of 356 nurses who were on duty between 20th September 2010 and 6th December 2010 were sampled. An exclusion criterion was given, where nurses that were absent in the preceding eight weeks were exempted (Stokke et al., 2014).

An efficient method of data collection was employed in this study, where questionnaires were used to ask whether nurses believed in the evidence-based practice and whether they implemented that practice. Relevant demographic data, such as age, job position, and education level, among others, were incorporated into the questionnaire. This was a good decision because a lot of data was obtained from the sampled nurses.

The results given were consistent with the objectives of the study. It was discovered that a majority of the respondents had a bachelor’s degree in nursing (50.8%), as compared to the 38.95% of nurses who were specialist nurses during the time of their registration. A majority of the nurses believed that evidence-based practice is important in providing health care services, with only 14% of the respondents being opposed to the strict adherence to the practice.

Study #4; Nursing Research Study in the USA

Hong, S. W. (2010). Evidence-based nursing practice for health promotion in adults with hypertension: a literature review. Asian Nursing Research, 4(4), 227-245. 

The purpose of the study was expressed well, where the researcher was assessing the importance of references and various articles for use by nurses in evidence-based practice.

In this study, no respondents were employed as it involved a review of articles without necessarily involving comments from physical respondents. Definitions of various concepts used in evidence-based practice were given. This introduces the reader to the actual practice that the researcher is addressing. The inclusion criterion was given as well, where articles that were published between 1988 and 2006 were considered.

A precise data collection method was used to collect the data. According to Hong (2010), referential literature was used to access literature published during the inclusion period. Only articles that were written in English and Korean were considered. The results were that the use of reference materials provides a precise decision while giving health care to patients. This article is organized well, such that the reader grasps the information with a lot of ease.

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Conclusion

Evidence-based practice is a useful approach that nurses should employ in delivering health care to patients. Unfortunately, some nurses do not believe in the application of this method. From the articles addressed, it is evident that a proper organization was followed in developing the articles. However, the purpose of the study for some articles was not stipulated clearly. The inclusion and exclusion criteria for most of the articles were given. One can ascertain that the results obtained in each study were relevant to the objectives of the study.

References

Hong, S. W. (2010). Evidence-based nursing practice for health promotion in adults with hypertension: a literature review. Asian Nursing Research, 4(4), 227-245.

Jones, S. G., Patsdaughter, C. A., Jorda, M. L., Hamilton, M., & Malow, R. (2008). Senoritas: An HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention project for Latina college students at a Hispanic-Serving University. Journal of the Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 19(4), 311-319.

Stokke, K., Olsen, N. R., Espehaug, B., & Nortvedt, M. W. (2014). Evidence based practice beliefs and implementation among nurses: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nursing, 13(8), 1-12.

You, L. M., Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., Liu, K., He, G. P., Hu, Y.,… Sermeus, W. (2013). Hospital nursing, care quality, and patient satisfaction: Cross-sectional surveys of nurses and patients in hospitals in China and Europe. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(2), 154-161.

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