The selected article for this critique is “An Examination of Transformational Leadership among Graduating Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Practicing Nurses” by Lizy Matthew. The article presents a quantitative study that was aimed at examining the five skills of transformational leadership among nursing students and practicing professionals. The author observed that many nursing students graduating from college portrayed inferior transformational leadership attributes.
The problem is clearly outlined in the article. The author wanted to explore the differences in leadership skills between practicing nurses and graduating baccalaureate students (Matthew, 2014). This problem is practically important since it seeks to understand the gaps in leadership and how they can be addressed to improve nursing practice.
The purpose of the study is also indicated in the article. The purpose was to examine five attributes of “transformational leadership among graduate baccalaureate nursing students and practicing nurses” (Matthew, 2014, p. 737). Three questions were outlined to guide the study. The first one focused on leadership differences between nurses and students. The second one focused on how individuals’ profiles impacted leadership. The third sought to comprehend the leadership skills possessed by the two groups.
Three hypotheses were used in this study. These included: there is no significance difference in leadership competencies among the targeted groups, practicing nurses will demonstrate similar skills compared to nursing students, and intervening variables (such as age, schooling period, and position) do not impact leadership skills (Matthew, 2014). The article does not define the key terms used. As indicated earlier, the purpose of the study is clearly identified and stated. Different variables have been refined in the article. The variables identified include age, gender, and education (Matthew, 2014).
Review of the Literature
The author does not include a review of the literature in the article. However, a short background is provided to inform the reader about the issues related to the targeted study. The background is supported using evidence-based ideas and arguments from different researchers (Pullen, 2016). The conciseness of the background makes it easier for the reader to understand the intention and gaps in leadership.
The articles cited in the article are pertinent to the study. Such articles are sourced from peer reviewed journals and publications. The ideas presented in such articles support the targeted study. Most of the references included in the background are recent. This is something that makes the research study informative and meaningful to the reader (Carragher & Gormley, 2016). The information presented in the section is nonbiased. The background describes the importance of leadership competencies in a wide range of healthcare settings.
The researcher used a quantitative approach to complete the study. The article embraced the use of “a prospective, comparative design” (Matthew, 2014, p. 738). The study used a non-experimental approach using inferential and descriptive statistical analysis. This approach was relevant for the selected research design. However, it happens to be expensive and tedious. This design and approach was therefore consistent and appropriate for the study framework and purpose.
The qualitative study relied on the use of two questionnaire sets. These included a demographic and the Leadership Practice Inventory-Self (LPI) questionnaires. These tools made it possible for the researcher to collect valid and useful information from the respondents (Matthew, 2014).
The study sample was defined using proper exclusion and inclusion criteria. These groups were targeted for the study: graduating students with RN-BSN, learners from accelerated baccalaureate degree, graduates from generic baccalaureate programs, and nurse practitioners (Pullen, 2016). This study sample was therefore representative of the population. This is the case because respondents were selected conveniently to make the process successful.
The respondents were from two hospitals and four nursing institutions in New Jersey (Matthew, 2014). The sample was therefore sufficient for the study. The recruitment process was appropriate since it did not disclose personal information or data. Sampling was done randomly after getting the required permission from the authorities.
The author used an appropriate strategy to manipulate the independent variables. For instance, the questionnaires were distributed to individuals based on variables such as age, gender, and education. Those in practice were grouped depending on the number of years in clinical settings. The targeted participants were protected from any form of harm. The variables were clearly defined before understanding the exercise.
Variables such age, grade point average (GPA), baccalaureate program, and gender were controlled using the demographic questionnaire. The questionnaire used supported the forms of reliability. The questionnaire’s reliability coefficients are usually between 0.82 and 0.92 (Matthew, 2014).
Data Analysis and Presentation
Data analysis was done using SPSS version 14.0 software (Matthew, 2014). The gathered results were considered to be significant for the study if the p-value was 0.05. This test value was considered to ensure meaningful data was gathered to complete the data analysis process. Reliability and validity was established using the statistical software. The SPSS software made it possible for the researcher to complete the study effectively.
The statistical tool was used to test each of the three hypotheses. As mentioned earlier, the collected and analyzed data was quantitative in nature (Matthew, 2014). The findings from the tests supported the purpose of the study. The author did not describe any problem encountered during the study.
Different findings and researches support the results of this study. For instance, Pullen (2016) indicate that nursing students lack adequate skills that should be developed before they take up their practices. Expanding the competencies of learners through the use of effective programs can make it easier for more nursing students to become accomplished leaders (Scully, 2013). The article has not disclosed any limitation associated with the completed study. However, the author acknowledges that future studies can focus on more institutions and healthcare facilities in order to come up with a better model for empowering different students (Amestoy et al., 2017).
Implication for Practice: Further Research
The findings of the study indicate that nursing students have inferior leadership dexterities compared to practitioners in clinical practice. This knowledge guides nursing institutions to design collaborative programs that can ensure more students participate in practice settings (Matthew, 2014). This approach can make it easier for the nurses to develop superior leadership skills and eventually improve the safety and quality of services available to their patients.
Future scholars can use this information to examine the level of cultural competence and critical thinking in nursing students and nurses in clinical practice. The knowledge can be used to come up with new programs to equip learners with superior competencies.
Using the Article in My Practice
This article presents evidence-based conceptions that can be applied in my practice. As a nurse practitioner, I will use the presented ideas to develop new leadership concepts (Onwe, 2014). I will achieve this goal by engaging in a wide range of care delivery activities and taking up more clinical roles. Consequently, I will empower more followers, inspire a common vision, and focus on quality health outcomes.
Amestoy, S., Trindade, L., Silva, G., Santos, B., Reis, V., &Ferreira, V. (2017). Leadership in nursing: From teaching to practice in a hospital environment. EEAN, 21(1), 1-7. Web.
Carragher, J., & Gormley, K. (2016). Leadership and emotional intelligence in nursing and midwifery education and practice: A discussion paper. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 73(1), 85-96. Web.
Matthew, L. (2014). An examination of transformational leadership among graduating baccalaureate nursing students and practicing nurses. Open Journal of Nursing, 4(1), 737-742. Web.
Onwe, S. (2014). Transformational leadership in nursing: The case of Ebonyi State in Nigeria. International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health, 1(10), 202-206. Web.
Pullen, R. (2016). Leadership in nursing practice. Nursing Made Incredibly Easy, 14(3), 26-31. Web.
Scully, N. (2013). Leadership in nursing: The importance of recognizing inherent values and attributes to secure a positive future for the profession. Collegian, 22(1), 439-444. Web.