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Female Condom Skills Training for HIV Risk Reduction


The number of women who are victims of the HIV virus amounts to almost half the total number of victims who live with the virus. Since its discovery, the virus has been the cause of numerous deaths across the globe. Among women, it is the greatest cause of death among women between the age of 15 and 44 years. These are the women in their reproductive age and are therefore likely to pass the virus to their children (Van et al. 2002, pp109). There have been several available alternatives to managing the death toll but the use o condom has proved most effective in preventing transmission of the virus as well as other venereal diseases(Witte et al 2006, pp148-154)

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Literature review

Women have twice the chance at getting the virus from men than men getting the virus from women during sexual intercourse and vice versa. This partially is attributed to the fact that the percentage of women with the correct information on the transition of the virus is only 20 percent (Van et al. 2002, pp109)… Among the young people, the number of women with the virus is up to three times that of young men.

In the US, one in every four victims of the virus is a woman a figure that has tripled since the 1980s.the majority of these infections occurs from sexual intercourse. Undeniably, sex is the most prevalent mode of transition of the virus among women (Witte et al 2006, pp148-154). In effect, it is important to provide the right information in the protective measures that the women may adopt to keep the spread of the virus at bay. One such method is the use of female condoms. The female condom is a polyurethane sheath worn by women during sexual intercourse to prevent the transition of the virus. It is a reliable prevention measure against the transition of sexual transmitted infections

Statement of the problem

The level of awareness of the existence and use of the female condom is still low due to the lack of effective and efficient information. In the US, the product has been inadequately advertised and marketed by both the private and private sectors. With the objective of evaluating, the efficacy of female condoms skills in hiv risk reduction among women there is a need for an appropriate sampling technique that will cover effectively the sample size (Choi 2008, pp 1841–1848).


The population comprises of a randomized controlled trial sample of 409 women who were recruited from northern California family planning clinics. The number was chosen and considered manageable in as far as cost and material is concerned. The women were also seen to be available for the regular check up and interaction with the researchers. The controlled number also allows the research to be more focused and intensive.


The nature of the research requires a controlled number for observation. Since the object of observation is the effectiveness of a skill, it is important to ensure that the sample is as diverse and representative of the larger population as possible. The probability sampling method utilizes the random selection approach. A simple random sample provides an adequate randomized controlled trial of 409 women, recruited from family planning clinics in northern California. These women were randomly assigned to the training program that involved a four session female intervention on general health promotion and intervention program. (Allison 2001) The study was then facilitated by providing basic condom skills to the women along with female and male condoms during the study sessions. The women were also required to undertake audio computer-assisted self-interviews.

How the sample will be drawn

Stratified random sampling allows the researcher to divide the population into homogenous subgroups upon which simple random samples are drawn from the sub groups. The sample is drawn through a randomization process that involves the stratification of the population by race and ethnicity. Before the study is begun, a stratum of sequential identification numbers are were generated and randomly re assigned to intervention categories in blocks with each block having a participant category and intervention category. The participant categories are left unaware of the assignment until their firs intervention session (Latka 2000, pp 431-437).

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Sample size and why this was chosen in relation to population size

The total sample results of the trial population must take a stand in as far as providing a concrete decision as to the effectiveness of the Female Condom Skills Training in HIV Risk Reduction among Women. It is therefore important that the sample be an odd number to avoid a standoff where results are equal and therefore no defensible result. 409 women is an adequate number that will allow for an equal selection of 200 women from the ethnic strata as well as the racial strata. Each stratum will also allow for an equal participant and control selection sample.


The justification behind the adoption of the stratified sampling method is the fact that it will not only be able to represent the overall population but also the key subcategories within the population. This method is specifically important and relevant in representing minority interests within the population. It is therefore possible to analyze the effectiveness of the education initiative to specific groups such as African Americans as compared to the whites or Asians. Extremely small groups can be effectively randomly oversampled through the use of different factions within the different strata. Alternatively if the minority groups have equal magnitude then equal or proportionate stratified random sampling could be used as opposed to disproportionate stratified random sampling.

Stratified random sampling also has a greater statistical precision as compared to the simple random sampling method. This is the case if the strata within the population are strictly homogenous. The homogeneity reduces the variability within the groups is lower than that of the general population. Stratified sampling therefore ensures that this variability is minimized.

This method is most effective if the variability within the strata is minimized while the variability between the strata maximized. The method also requires a strong correlation between the dependent variables in the population within the strata. The major advantages of this method are the ability to focus on the relevant population leaving aside the irrelevant ones. The method provides for an avenue for use of more than one method. Different methods of sampling could be used in the various strata depending on the suitability and efficiency of such method. This helps improve the accuracy and efficiency of the estimation from the sample. The method also controls the problem of a balance of inconsistencies by allowing the researcher to use equal samples from strata that vary widely in size.


The stratified sampling method is an appropriate method for the study due to the divergent minority groups that will be covered. The method has its own shortcomings in as far as cost is concerned. It is more expensive than the popular simple random sampling method. It is also not relevant if the sample is not homogenous.


Allison, P. (2001). Missing Data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Choi, K., Hoff, C., Gregorich, S., & Grinstead, O. (2008). The efficacy of female condom skills training in HIV risk reduction among women: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 1841–1848

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Latka, M., GoUub, E., French, P., and Stein Z. (2000). Male-condom and female-condom use among women after counselingin a risk-reduction hierarchy for STD prevention. Sec Transm Dis.;27:431-437.

Van, N. et al.( 2002). Effect of an STD/HIV behavioral intervention on women’s use of the female condom. Am f Public Health.;92:109.

Witte, S.S. et al. (2006). Promoting female condom use to heterosexual couples: findings from a randomized dinical trial. Perspect. Sex Reprod Health.;38:148-154.

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