Health Belief Model is a theory that the health care practitioners use in health education and promotion. According to Carley (2009), the theory was developed in 1950s to explain why many people did not utilize the screening programs particularly for tuberculosis. The underlying principle of Health Belief Model is that the determination of people behaviors is their beliefs as well as perception about diseases and available strategies for decreasing the occurrences.
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The Health Belief Model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
The Health Belief Model focuses on the behavior of a person towards prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has four psychological variables that include perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits and barriers (Walter, 2009). Besides, it has cues to action and self-efficacy that serve as catalysts for decision-making process. To begin with, perceived susceptibility is a person’s belief that he or she is likely to get chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Those people who do not smoke tobacco, are not exposed to dust, chemical or biomass pollution may not seek treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease because they are not at risk. This is a fallacy because chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is also associated with age, airway hyperactivity, airway infection, poor nutrition, low socioeconomic status, familial factors and allergy (Edlin & Golanty, 2010). Moreover, perceived severity is the person’s opinion about the graveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its sequel. While perception of the seriousness on a disease is usually on medical information as well as knowledge, it may also result from an individual belief about the difficulty that the disease can create on his life. For instance, those who view chronic obstructive disease as a disorder that can cause human suffering as well as death are likely to seek treatment than those who regard it as a minor ailment.
Additionally, a perceived benefit is an individual opinion about the usefulness of the new behavior in alleviating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Rimer & Glanz, 2008). People can only quit smoking if they are aware that it will reduce their chances of getting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Besides, perceived barrier is the negative part of a particular health behavior (Rimer & Glanz, 2008). People may not seek treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to lack of time, money and motivation. On the other hand, cues to action are the events, the people or the things that motivate someone to change his or her behavior. For instance, seeing many people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can make one change his behavior. Finally, self-efficacy is a person believes that he or she has the ability to do something. For example, a person who believes that smoking is not good but does not think that he can quit the smoking habit will not attempt quitting thus ending up with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Application of perceived susceptibility of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Perceived susceptibility prompt people to change their risky behaviors and adapt healthy living habits (Kozier, 2009). When the perceived risk is high, people are likely to engage in non-risky behaviors. This is the reason why some people may quit smoking while others continue with the same habit. As a result, the nurse should create awareness about susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The nurse achieves this through training and health education.
The training should entail informing people about the social, environmental, economic and physical risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Carley, 2009). The social risk include tobacco smoking while environmental entail exposure to pollution, dust and chemicals. Besides, economic risks are poor nutrition and low socio economic statuses while physical are age, airway hyperactivity, airway infection, familial factors and allergy. The nurse should have an objective of ensuring that people know how these factors predisposes one to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This will help them to perceive the risk factors as imperative thus a change in behavior.
Application of perceived severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Walter (2009) states that, perceived severity depend on a belief that someone hold about the seriousness of disease. The belief is usually in the persons mind and it does not have any logical rationale. For instance, a person who believe that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is just a common ailment, may not seek medical attention. It is therefore the responsibility of a nurse to guide and counsel this person so that he or she can change his or her mind. Additionally, the nurse can create posters that show how serious the disease is or create awareness through health education.
During the counseling sessions, the nurse can inform the person all the negative consequences of obstructive pulmonary disease. They include osteoporosis, lung cancer, gastro esophageal reflux, anemia and death (Edlin & Golanty, 2010). Additionally, the nurse can hang up posters that show the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Finally, the nurse can teach people on how serious chronic obstructive pulmonary disease yet it is preventable. This will help people change the belief that they have about the disease thus seeking medical attention.
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Application of perceived benefits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Perceived benefits are the values that a person assigns to a particular behavior (Kozier, 2009). For instance, if a person knows the importance of engaging in preventive behaviors, he or she will modify his or her living style (Kozier, 2009). Therefore, the nurse should inform people on the advantages of engaging in behavior change. Besides, the nurse can train people about the importance of a change in behavior. Healthy behaviors that prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease include good nutrition, medical screening, allergy prevention and treatment of common respiratory infections. Once people are aware of the benefits, they are likely to adapt a healthy lifestyle.
Application of perceived barriers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
According to Rimer & Glanz (2008), barriers hinder people from seeking health services as well as changing their behaviors. The barriers include time, money and motivation. For instance, a person may not eat a balanced diet or seek medical advice due to lack of money and time respectively. Therefore, in order to prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the nurse should strive to determine all the barriers and device a way of alleviating them. For instance, the nurse can address the issue of time by letting people understand that their health is important than anything else. Additionally, the nurse can address the issue of money through provision of affordable services. Finally, the nurse can motivate people to change their behaviors by letting them realize that the benefits of a healthy lifestyle outweigh the disadvantages.
Application of cues of action
Cues of action are things that motivate a person to act in a particular manner (Carley, 2009). As a result, a nurse should find out and emphasize those things that make a person adapt behavior that prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. For example, telling people the prevalence of mortality and morbidity resulting from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can make them change their behaviors. Additionally, the nurse can host a television or a radio program that emphasize on healthy lifestyle. Finally, the nurse can make brochures that show the association between unhealthy behaviors and increase in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All this will act as motivating factors towards behavior change.
Application of self-efficacy
Self-efficacy is a belief that someone hold about his or her capability of doing something (Walter, 2009). Therefore, the nurse plan is to enhance positive beliefs while alleviating negative perceptions. The nurse achieves this via training as well as guidance and counseling. For instance, the nurse can train a person with poor eating habits how to take a balanced diet. Additionally, the nurse can guide and counsel a person who believes that he or she cannot stop smoking tobacco. The training as well as the guidance and counseling instill a belief in someone that he or she has the ability of engaging in behavior that prevents chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
The role of DNP in impacting quality care through Health Belief Model
The role of DNP in influencing quality care via Health Belief Model is education. The educative role involves creating awareness about health promotion and preventive measures. The DNP should educate people about perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers and cues of action as well as self-efficacy. This will ensure that people realize the importance of engaging in behaviors that prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. For instance, the DNP can educate people on the risk factors associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This will help people know the kind of healthy behaviors that they should engage in. As a result, people will have quality life.
Health Belief Model is important in prevention of illness and promotion of health. As a result, the nurse should apply it to prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Carley, N. (2009). The Health Belief Model: Factors Associated with Frequent Examination. New York: Springer.
Edlin, G., & Golanty, E. (2010). Health and Wellness. New York: Jones and Barlet Learning.
Kozier, B. (2009). Fundamentals of Nursing: Concepts, Process and Practice. Michigan: Prentice Hall.
Rimer, B., & Glanz, K. (2008). Health Behav iour and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice. San Fransisco: John Wiley and Sons.
Walter, S. (2009). The Health Belief Model: Perception Influencing the Adoptoion of Preven tive Exersise Behaviour. North Carlifornia: Chapel Hill.