Health promotion is a basic refrain for nursing practice. It has been a major focus in the nursing practice in the recent decades due to its contribution to the nursing philosophy. This literature review analyzes the evolution of nursing roles and responsibilities in health promotion. The paper reviews three journal articles comparing them, based on the three levels of health promotion prevention.
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Laliberté, Perreault, Damestoy and Lalonde (2012) define health promotion as public health services that are aimed at improving the general health of a community through interventions that contribute to health and individual wellbeing. They explain that the purpose of health promotion is to empower patients and encourage community participation in health matters. In addition, health promotion motivates individuals and communities to take part in activities that enhance their wellbeing.
Burggraf (2012) traces the evolution of nursing roles and responsibilities from the twentieth century. He points out that the expansion of the public health sector has changed the roles and responsibilities of the nursing practice in health promotion. These changes emanate from the definition of nursing that was conceptualized by Virginia Henderson. Burggraf points out that nursing roles and responsibilities have developed from assistance to individual patients and families to the participation in community health initiatives. The nursing practice has established collaborations with different health providers to promote health in the communities. In addition, the roles of nurses involve creation of knowledge and awareness of health threatening conditions in a community.
Kulbok, Thatcher, Park, and Meszaros (2012) explain that the new developments in the nursing specialty have changed the role of nursing in health promotion. In addition, the need for population-oriented preventive health care has led to the emergence of new approaches to health promotion. The roles of nurses are now closely tied to improving health and social conditions of vulnerable communities. In addition, Kulbok, Thatcher, Park and Meszaros (2012) opine that diversity in the health care sector does not confine nurses to disease prevention, diagnosis, or treatment only in hospitals. The nursing roles today include provision of health services, consultations, and health education to the homeless, elderly, sedentary individuals, adolescents, mothers, among many other vulnerable persons in the society.
Wandersman et al. (2008) highlight the implementation procedure for health promotion in nursing practice. Community and Primary care nurses are involved in the implementation of the prevention interventions. Health problems within the community are identified through review of information with emphasis on the risk factors. In this exercise, the primary care and community nurses should make sure the entire community is involved. Implementation of the prevention intervention commences when the primary care and community nurses reveal a health problem or risk factor to their communities. Finally, the tertiary prevention intervention is instituted to address the health problem.
The first level of health promotion prevention is referred to as a primary prevention. Perk, et al. (2012) illustrate how Cardiovascular Diseases (CDV) can be prevented during the early stages of childhood. The authors argue that the primary intervention of CDV should be aimed at promoting cardiovascular health. In addition, they hold an opinion that it should involve preserving a population that is free from epidemic risk factors. The authors articulate that population-based approaches lower CDV risk factors to desirable levels from individual’s childhood to adulthood. They claim that nurse practitioners and practice nurses should be equipped with skills and competencies that enable them to implement population-based prevention approaches. This intervention can be implemented at the community level through prevention trials in pre-schools, schools, and other institutions within a community. Nurses convey health knowledge to enhance changes in health behaviors that are related to CDV. The intervention introduces children to the causes of CDV, which influences change in attitude and behaviors related to CDV. The changes in behavior include reducing exposure to CDV risk factors, such as drug abuse, sedentary lifestyle, and nutrition.
The second level of health promotion prevention is analyzed by Redberg et al. (2009). The authors rely on scientific statements from the American Hearts Association and American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation to demonstrate how secondary prevention interventions can be used in the nursing practice. The authors assert that secondary prevention programs are significant in cardiac rehabilitation. They emphasize that secondary prevention is critical in cardiovascular risk reduction, and in fostering healthy behaviors within a community.
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In addition, secondary interventions, such as the assessment of patient documents, patient follow-up plans, dietary modifications, patient counselling, and drug monitoring therapies, are the key components in the treatment of CVD. Redberg et al. (2009) explain that motivational messages and consistent encouragement of CVD patients should be central in secondary prevention interventions. The authors rely on scientific statements from the American Hearts Association and American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation to demonstrate how secondary prevention interventions can be used in the practice of nursing.
The tertiary prevention intervention refers to the actions that are taken to limit the spread of disease or the risk factor. The article by Skudlik et al. (2008) demonstrates how tertiary prevention interventions can be used in the nursing practice. The authors employ Tertiary Individual Prevention (TIP) in the treatment of occupational skin diseases among people working in high-risk environments. They construct 2-3-week in-patient treatment intervention, which involves health-pedagogic counseling. The dermatologist practitioners also participate in 3-week out-patient treatment intervention. The results of this intervention demonstrate the need for tertiary prevention intervention in health promotion.
Health promotion is critical in ensuring good health in a community. The nursing practice roles and responsibilities have evolved over the last decades to address new demands in the public health sector. The implementation of the prevention interventions plays a significant role in promoting good health within a community.
Burggraf, V. (2012). Overview and Summary: The New Millennium: Evolving and Emerging Nursing Roles. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 17(2), 1.
Kulbok, P. A., Thatcher, E., Park, E., & Meszaros, P. S. (2012). Evolving Public Health Nursing Roles: Focus on Community Participatory Health Promotion and Prevention. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 17(2), 1.
Laliberté, M. C., Perreault, S., Damestoy, N., & Lalonde, L. (2012). Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 192.
Perk, J., De Backer, G., Gohlke, H., Graham, I., Reiner, Ž., Verschuren, M.,… & Baigent, C. (2012). European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012) The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts) Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). European heart journal, 33(13), 1635-1701.
Redberg, R. F., Benjamin, E. J., Bittner, V., Braun, L. T., Goff, D. C., Havas, S.,… & Swegler, E. W. (2009). ACCF/AHA 2009 Performance Measures for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures (Writing Committee to Develop Performance Measures for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease) Developed in Collaboration With the American Academy of Family Physicians; American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation; and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association…. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 54(14), 1364-1405.
Skudlik, C. C., Wulfhorst, B. B., Gediga, G. G., Bock, M. M., Allmers, H. H., & John, S. M. (2008). Tertiary individual prevention of occupational skin diseases: a decade’s experience with recalcitrant occupational dermatitis. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health, 81(8), 1059-1064. doi:10.1007/s00420-008-0300-x
Wandersman, A., Duffy, J., Flaspohler, P., Noonan, R., Lubell, K., Stillman, L.,… & Saul, J. (2008). Bridging the gap between prevention research and practice: The interactive systems framework for dissemination and implementation. American journal of community psychology, 41(3-4), 171-181.