In the framework of health care, health promotion plays a critical role. It educates individuals regarding activities that can improve their health condition, prevent diseases and even premature death. Health promotion is significant not only for individuals but also for the whole communities, as it can influence the health behavior in a positive way (Kliche, Plaumann, Nöcker, Dubben, & Walter, 2011).
Health promotion is able to enhance the health status of the nation, improve the quality of life and reduce the costs needed for medical treatment. It is tightly connected with disease prevention that is meant to minimalize the risks of morbidities. They address social determinants of health in order to teach people how to become healthier and avoid health problems. As a result, health outcomes enhance, and insurance costs reduce (Thomas, Hart, & Burman, 2014).
Description of Health Promotion Levels
There are three health promotion levels that include a wide range of interventions designed to minimalize both risks and threats to health of people:
- Primary prevention. Its goal is to avoid a health problem before it even occurs with the help of specific protection. It includes various interventions that can help individuals live healthy lives that can decrease vulnerability. Example – any type of education, immunizations.
- Secondary prevention. It is meant to reduce the impact of the health issue that already exists. The aim is to detect the disease before it entails critical consequences. Example – screening test, diet.
- Tertiary prevention. It deals with the treatment of health problems that have long-lasting effects (such as chronic diseases). The reduction of possible complications is the main purpose. Example – treatment, rehabilitation, support groups, and education (“What researchers mean by,” 2015).
Health Promotion into the Practice
Different medical conditions can be prevented with the help of health promotion. For example, Joseph, Williams, Ownby, Saltzgaber, & Johnson (2007) apply these levels of promotion when discussed asthma and its treatment.
- Primary prevention. Asthma incidence can be reduced with the help of identification of the most common risk factors. The information about them can be provided to the general public so that the effects of these factors will reduce.
- Secondary prevention. The adverse impact of asthma on one’s health and life can be reduced through disease detection, management, and control.
- Tertiary prevention. The complications can be minimalized with the help of treatment and education on the new lifestyle.
In this way, asthma morbidity rates can be greatly lowered with the help of health promotion and disease prevention.
Evidence Based – Practice
In the article prepared by Go et al. (2013), the attention is paid to cardiovascular diseases and their prevention in the connection to health promotion. The professionals conducted research, which showed that such non-communicable condition as high blood pressure can be treated with the help of health promotion guidelines. The professionals made a conclusion that three prevention levels discussed earlier can reduce both direct and indirect costs of hypertension that comprise almost $70 billion in 2008. Evidence-based treatment also showed that preventive measures turned out to be effective for the reduction of the incidence of high blood pressure, which is extremely advantageous.
Taking everything mentioned into consideration it can be concluded that it is critical to follow health promotion guidelines in nursing practice. With their help, professionals receive an opportunity not only to improve health status of the community but also to reduce expenditures, which is difficult to manage as health insurance costs are always rather high.
Go, A., Bauman, M., King, S., Fonarow, G., Lawrence, W., Williams, K., & Sanchez, E. (2013). An effective approach to high blood pressure control. Hypertension, 63(1), 878-885.
Joseph, C., Williams, L., Ownby, D., Saltzgaber, J., & JohnsonC. (2007). Applying epidemiologic concepts of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention to the elimination of racial disparities in asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 117(2), 233-242.
Kliche, T., Plaumann, M., Nöcker, G., Dubben, S., & Walter, U. (2011). Disease prevention and health promotion programs: benefits, implementation, quality assurance and open questions. Journal of Public Health, 19(4), 283-292.
Thomas, J., Hart, A., & Burman, M. (2014). Improving health promotion and disease prevention in NP-delivered primary care. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 10(4), 221-228.
What researchers mean by… primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. (2015). At Work, 80(1), 2.