HIV/AIDS Treatment Obstacles in Mumbai: Research | Free Essay Example

HIV/AIDS Treatment Obstacles in Mumbai: Research

Words: 571
Topic: Health & Medicine


The present article dwells upon the major issues concerning HIV/AIDS treatment in India’s lower-middle class. Naik et al. (2009) claim that the reduction of medication costs and educational programs concerning the disease and its treatment can improve the situation in the region.

Kinds of Research

The present article is based on observational research. The method presupposes interviews and observations, analysis of the data obtained to reveal causes, effects, incidence (Mann, 2003).


The present article focuses on behavioral and economic factors that influenced HIV/AIDS treatment (in particular, Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment) of people living in India’s urban areas.


The present research s designed as a qualitative, interview-based survey. A cross-sectional survey design was used to implement the present research. The survey included closed and open questions on economic, behavioral, social, and demographic factors.


One hundred fifty-two patients took part in the survey. The participants were patients of King Edward Memorial Hospital and Seth G.S. Medical College that are located in Mumbai. The average age of the participants was 40.5 years. 73% of participants were males (they were all heterosexual). The participants obtained ART from 6 months to 5 years. 90% of participants lived at home and used public transport to get to the hospital. The participants pertained to the lower middle class of Mumbai.


The research is based on the data obtained during face-to-face interviews with the participants of the research.


The independent variables of the study are the socio-economic status of participants, their age, gender, sexual behavior, and the history of their treatment (period). The dependent variables are the participants’ attitudes towards treatment, their viewpoints concerning medication.

Level of Measurement

The level of measurement of the present research is nominal. Notably, the nominal scale is often used in qualitative research (Data, n.d.). It is but natural that the present research uses this level of measurement as it is qualitative research.


MS Access database was developed. The data obtained were analyzed with the help of SAS Statistical Software 9.2.


The researchers focused on independent samples, i.e., the samples were non-related. The only thing that was in common was that they were patients of the same clinics.

Sampling Technique

The research is based on a random sample of 152 patients of the two clinics. Eligible participants were males or females (aged 18 to 64) who obtained HAART treatment in the clinics for six months or five years.

Statistical Tests

The data were analyzed with the help of SAS Statistical Software 9.2. At that, factors that influenced participants’ attitudes towards their treatment were analyzed using “appropriate statistical procedures” (Naik et al., 2009, p. 25).

Results or Findings

Naik et al. (2009) claim that the participants report that their treatment’s major obstacle is the high cost of medication. The authors also state that participants were more eager to continue treatment when they acknowledged the advantages of HAART medications.


The authors conclude that medication costs reduction and certain teaching programs could be beneficial for HIV/AIDS treatment in the region.


The study was conducted properly. The participants were chosen randomly, and this minimizes the level of bias. The researchers used certain statistical data to analyzed data collected during interviews. The number of participants was also enough to draw conclusions. Notably, the researchers focused on quite a narrow topic (to reveal attitudes of people on the Indian lower middle class), and they managed to provide a thorough analysis.

Reference List

Data: Understanding and presenting it clearly. (n.d.). Web.

Mann, C.J. (2003). Observational research methods. Research design II: Cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies. Emergency Medicine Journal, 20, 54-60.

Naik, E., Casanas, B., Pazare, A., Wable, G., Sinnott, J., Salihu, H. (2009). Cost of treatment: Single biggest obstacle to HIV/AIDS treatment adherence in lower middle class Mumbai, India. Indian J Sex Transm Dis, 30(1), 23-27.