Before starting work on a capstone project, it is crucial to identify the major aspects related to it. The present paper offers an overview of the issue that will be the focus of the project, along with the setting, description, and effect of the selected problem. The significance of the issue under analysis will be discussed, and a solution to the identified problem will be given.
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The Focus of the Project
The issue that will serve as the focus of the project is the problem of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). The reason why HAIs should be investigated is that they constitute the primary cause of disability and death among hospitalized individuals (Boev & Kiss, 2017). Due to the persistence of various pathogens in healthcare settings, HAIs demand serious consideration and require innovative approaches to mitigate risks (Dancer, 2014).
The settings in which HAIs can be observed include hospitals and clinics. The most frequent occurrence of the problem is recorded in intensive care units and surgical units (Boev & Kiss, 2017, Boev & Xia, 2015, Kizny Gordon et al., 2017). Transplant and burns units are also reported to have a high rate of HAIs (Mehta et al., 2014). Pediatric wards and dialysis units are under threat of HAIs as well (Murni, Duke, Kinney, Daley, & Soenarto, 2015; Sarani, Balouchi, Masinaeinezhad, & Ebrahimitabs, 2016).
A Detailed Description of the Problem
The most frequent HAIs related to surgical sites include catheter-associated urinary tract infections, central-line-associated bloodstream infections, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (Boev & Kiss, 2017). The most common types of bacteria prevailing in healthcare settings are multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Clostridium difficile (Dancer, 2014). Cleanliness has become a crucial factor related to sustaining hospital settings in conditions that would prevent the spread of bacteria.
The Impact of the Problem
The effect on patients and healthcare providers is significant since HAIs have the potential to decrease patient satisfaction and exacerbate patient outcomes. The work environment may suffer, and relationships between physicians and nurses may worsen due to the increased level of complaints from customers. The most crucial patient outcomes include such issues as a prolonged hospital stay, increased damage to health, and death (Boev & Kiss, 2017).
The Significance of the Problem
The importance of the issue cannot be overestimated due to the number of adverse effects that can emerge because of it. Various clinical and economic effects of the problem can occur (Thaden et al., 2016). The increased cost of hospital stays influences both patients and health insurance companies. Nurses serve as the main members of collaborative teams the aim of activity of which is the prevention of HAIs (Boev & Kiss, 2017).
A close collaboration between physicians and nurses is recommended to eliminate the incidence of HAIs (Boev & Xia, 2015). The increased prominence on hand hygiene and aseptic techniques is another viable approach (Boev & Kiss, 2017). Intensified cleaning measures, including disinfectant- and detergent-based approaches, can alleviate the problem (Dancer, 2014). Additionally, since the water environment at hospitals can promote HAIs, healthcare settings should enhance their general infection control measures and perform regular chemical water disinfection (Kizny Gordon et al., 2017).
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The presented description of the capstone project contains the rationale for the problem’s selection, its settings, and details, and offers several solutions to the issue. Scholars agree that the problem of HAIs is highly relevant in healthcare institutions. While many measures are being taken to avoid HAIs, the current rate of the problem is still too high to neglect. Physicians and nurses should work in collaboration to eliminate the incidence of HAIs and gain the highest levels of patient satisfaction.
Boev, C., & Kiss, E. (2017). Hospital-acquired infections: Current trends and prevention. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America, 29(1), 51-65. Web.
Boev, C., & Xia, Y. (2015). Nurse-physician collaboration and hospital-acquired infections in critical care. Critical Care Nurse, 35(2), 66-72.
Dancer, S. J. (2014). Controlling hospital-acquired infection: Focus on the role of the environment and new technologies for decontamination. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 27(4), 665-690.
Kizny Gordon, A. E., Mathers, A. J., Cheong, E. Y. L., Gottlieb, T., Kotay, S., Walker, A. S., … Stoesser, N. (2017). The hospital water environment as a reservoir for carbapenem-resistant organisms causing hospital-acquired infections — A systematic review of the literature. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 64(10), 1435-1444.
Mehta, Y., Gupta, A., Todi, S., Myatra, S., Samaddar, D., Patil, V., … Ramasubban, S. (2014). Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 18(3), 149-163.
Murni, I. K., Duke, T., Kinney, S., Daley, A. J., & Soenarto, Y. (2015). Reducing hospital-acquired infections and improving the rational use of antibiotics in a developing country: An effectiveness study. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 100(5), 454-459.
Sarani, H., Balouchi, A., Masinaeinezhad, N., & Ebrahimitabs, E. (2016). Knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses about standard precautions for hospital-acquired infection in teaching hospitals affiliated to Zabol University of Medical Sciences (2014). Global Journal of Health Science, 8(3), 193-198.
Thaden, J. T., Li, Y., Ruffin, F., Maskarinec, S. A., Hill-Rorie, J. M., Wanda, L. C., … Fowler, V. G. (2016). Increased costs associated with bloodstream infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria are due primarily to patients with hospital-acquired infections. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 61(3), e01709.