Graphics is basically composed of pixels and colors and it is used to present images and videos. This world is moving so fast and number of new technologies and trends in graphics are changed now, in ancient days graphics was only considered for creating and displaying static images, with the passage of time new and advanced changes arrived in the field of graphics. Nowadays graphics is leading a world, number of techniques and other trends are now become essential part of business environment. There are number of graphics applications which are used daily in different organization worldwide. Graphics soft wares are easily available and they are useful in creating static as well as dynamic images. Due to this software, designers are able to create new and unique graphics within few steps. Field of graphics has changed a lot and the concept of ancient graphics is totally changed now. Rapid changes made this interesting and easy.
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Graphics is not only restricted to computer field but it is presentation of colors and pictures on wall, canvas etc. There are number of examples some of them are: Photographs, drawings, Line Art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics combines text, illustration, and color. Graphics are used in number of fields like business, art, education, advertisement, and film and politics. There are number of designers who are working in this field from years and known as renowned designers. Designers use new and advanced technologies, methodologies and number of different algorithms in order to produce unique and smooth image. Image recreation, reconstruction is now become very easy with the aid of number of graphics softwares but the issue concern in this field is smoothness and sharpness of image.
In reconstruction of an image, number of factors is involved and helps in producing smooth and sharp images. Choice of algorithm and methodology is of one’s own depending upon the requirement. There are some famous graphic designers namely: Aldus Manutius, April Greiman, Paul Rand, and William Caslon. These designers designed unique logos of different large firms including IBM, UPS and Calson. The evolution of graphics started from pre 1950 and with the passage of time changes came in this field and this field become an emerging technology worldwide. Number of firms these days only depends on graphics animation and is earning enough. There are different types of computer graphics, some of them are: 2D computer graphics, Pixel art, Vector graphics, 3D computer graphics, and Computer animation.
Computer graphics based on number of different concepts some of the basic concepts are: Image, Pixel, Graphics, Rendering, Volume rendering, 3D modeling. Following are pioneers in graphic field: Charles Csuri, Donald P, Greenberg A, Michael Noll, Daniel J. Sandin, Alvy Ray Smith, Ivan Sutherland, and Steve Russell. Graphic are now days used in number of applications like Computational biology, Computational physics, Computer-aided design, Computer simulation, Digital art, Education, Graphic design, Info graphics, Information visualization, Scientific visualization, Video Games. CGI is an important part of computer graphics history. 3d animations are very much in use nowadays, there is number of methodologies for human or character animation in images. Few methodologies are discussed below for assistance
Image-Based Rendering for Computer Synthesized Human Figures
Human figures and animation in human images has been one of the major and problematic issues in computer graphics. Giving motion to number of human objects are little different from other 3D animations. It’s been a long time when Parke worked a lot on human face animation. This technique is based on IBMR technologies for human face synthesis in field of computer graphics. This Approach is highly focused on giving a smooth, sharp, cost effective 3D model in order to achieve the targets of study. Parke was the first who started work on human face synthesis in computer graphics. With the passage of time different people did lots of changes and introduced new technologies and terminologies in order to produce face animation in human images. This approach is cost effective, time saving and produces best output depending upon input type and smoothness. Pixel configuration is one of the most important parts of this approach. It helps in saving time and efforts if pixel configuration is up to the mark. Results may vary if image contains low pixel configuration. The task of producing a fine and smooth clear expression on human image in computer graphics is still a major challenge. Number of designers and researchers worked on it but still there is a wide room for improvement and development facial expression on human images in field of computer graphics. This approach produces a smooth and shape 3D model which enables facial expressions on human images as a resultant object (Ersotelos, 2007).
Composing behaviors and swapping bodies with motion capture data in X3D
3D animation is one of the growing fields in computer graphics these days, and there is a large room for improvement and development motion in 3D images. This approach focuses on standards of 3D graphics for humanoid animation. This is an enhanced form of previous work to encompass plausible humanoids, behaviors and methodologies for creating and production of human behavior in images. This approach highly emphasizes on activities for humanoid animation which static and dynamic behavior production in an image and allows extraction for 3D optical motion in graphics. This approach focuses on usage to archive, annotate and transforms the whole body and performance of date for proper usage with less efforts and time.
This approach is cost effective, time saving, efficient and is best for large scale training analysis, entertainment and games. X3d and VRML simulation doesn’t produce realistic representation of humans (Introduction to the MPEG-4, 2004). There is a lack of flexibility of control required to create small, meaningful approach in order to train individuals and providing task oriented training scenarios, VRML simulation fails in achieving target on deploying of protection assets on commercial basis. By the lack of humanoid representation high value assets and offensive agents can be easily modeled using simulations. There is a lack of training in visualization (Web-based 3D Graphics, 2001). Swappable and rapid changing in behaviors on human images produces real effect in images. This approach is widely used for creating new and changeable behaviors in order to give smooth and real effect to images.
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Creating human behavioral animation in 3D graphic is quiet difficult and requires more effort and strong algorithm in order to achieve smooth and realistic image. Creating behaviors and use them according to requirement to give real effect is quiet difficult but with the aid of strong algorithm and approach this problem can be solved up to high extent. This approach produces set of data in order to create changeable behaviors in images. The best point of this approach is that its dataset is reusable. This approach depends on SAVAGE approach. This dataset contain skeletal information and behavioral information in order to use it frequent with minimal changes. This approach is time saving, cost effective and is especially designed keeping in mind the requirements of today’s market and demands in computer graphics. This approach is one of the best approaches among all other approaches to create behaviors and emotion in human images (Apayd1n, 2002). There is a wide room for improvement in this field however this approach minimizes problems involved in creating behaviors in human images. This approach produces dataset which contain information about skeleton and behavior and this dataset is designed in such a way that it can be reusable with minimum efforts. This approach saves time as number of objects is designed once and can be used several times. There are some problems involved in creating human behaviors in images but composing behaviors and swapping bodies with motion capture data in X3D approach solves problem up to high extent although this approach still needs improvement regarding time issues and performance issues.
The Approach of Chinese Speech Triseme Recognition for Human Mouth Animation
Mouth animation creates nice and real effect in computer images. Mouth animation creates real effect and it gives feeling of realism in computer images. Number of algorithms and approaches are present in order to create smooth and fast mouth animation in images. There are different types of mouth animation based on human mouth synthesis approach are available. All these approaches widely used in number of application like games, cartoons etc. This approach presents novel natural speech driven mouth animation method. To capture the features and expression of continuous speaking mouth the Triseme based, modeling technique is used in this approach for obtaining Triseme HMMs.
In this approach to obtain robust parameters, state tying procedure is introduced. This produce is used for obtaining robust parameters with limited data. To resolve compatibility and other related issues, visiemic questions in leaf node of decision tree are used based on training data. Vierbi beam searching algorithm is applied with the combination of HMM parameters t resolve Triseme sequences. Through smoothing process, with the combination of Triseme themes a fully animated mouth can be produced. This approach focuses on time and performance issues through out. Approach of Chinese Speech Triseme Recognition for Human Mouth Animation is applied on number of images and calculated time and speed is considered good for human vision. Mouth animation are little risky as speed is an essential and most important element in producing mouth animations.
Fast speed and low speed both creates bad effect on human vision (Ming, Huang, 2007). Designers need to be very careful while selecting algorithm and approach for creating mouth animation in computer images. Mapping and producing animation, speed and time management is an important factor and it needs to be done with care and accuracy. This approach is highly effective for creating time mouth animations in computer images.
Fast multi-level adaptation for interactive autonomous characters
Adaptation by virtual characters is one of the most difficult problems in computer graphics and animation world. This is due to interaction of human with external environment. This approach presents novel level based technique for fast character adaptation. These techniques required to be implemented in very careful environment and need to be done with care in order to achieve high and effective results with this approach (Dinerstein and Egbert, 2004). This approach specifically target on that environment where human has an interaction with virtual environment and human characters also interact with external environment. In this technique distance learning method is applied in order to judge the relationship between character and external environment (Puttkamer, E. 2001).
Learning method is applied to each layer of cognitive model in order to achieve smooth and accurate results (Evans, 2002). This approach also provides a prominent and temporal distinction between characters lessons for each layer. In this way, character easily learn how to interact with human user in best possible time based upon the facts and data, observations and performance feed of environment. This technique relies on no explicit feedback from human (Dodgson, 2002). This technique is designed in such a way to meet the requirements and needs of today’s animation industry; this technique is useful and effective. This is designed in simplest way in order to make possible upgrading of this approach. This method can easily be upgraded with different animation systems. This is time saving, cost effective and memory efficient (Matthews, 1997). This approach takes little memory on system.
Mood swings: expressive speech
Facial animations are required in number of fields specifically in animation field. Facial expressions are widely used in cartoon, videos, movies and games. They are also used for business presentations but mainly they are used in entertainment field. Motion captured based facial animation has gained great popularity in past few years. This is widely use in number of fields to give real effect to all computerized human images. This technique is considered best among all other techniques because of its speed, smoothness and effectiveness (Cohen, and Massaro, 1993). This animation has gained huge popularity in games, entertainment, videos and human computer interface design. With the combination of human expressions and human character interaction with external environment gives real effect to images. This is one of the most important reasons of its popularity in animation field.
Editing of motion data is difficult and needs more algorithms and approaches in order to make it simple and time saving. From last few years, different statically techniques have been applied to address this problem specially recording of words and visual mapping. Different techniques have been applied in order to create new motion from existing ones (Cossato, E. 2002). This approach is widely focused on creating expressive facial motion by extracting facts from expression axis of speech performance. A statistical model for factoring expression and visual speech issue din this approach in order to examine the facial expression of new performance (Pighin and Salesin, 1999). This model can also be used for modification of facial expression based on existing performance. With the help of this model, facial expression can be effectively used for another 3D face model. The proportion of obtained facts is weighted according to expression information. The resultant animation produces much more emotion than if only motion vectors were used for retargeting. Head and mouth motion has a great significance in human animation as it gives real and lively effect to computer images. Creating head motions one need to be very careful as it can make image dull and boring if its head and mouth animation is not good and speed controlling for human visions.
Stylized Highlights for Cartoon Rendering and Animation
Cartoons have its own importance in computer animation field and it is renowned as success of cartoon field. Motion and animation gives cartoon interesting and lively effects which is the basic requirement of entertainment field. This approach highlights shader depicts cartoon styles for 3D objects in number of fields especially in cel animation. This approach highlights semantic use of cel animation. This approach highlights semantic cel animation by using white strips on window of crescent images on an alloy wheel. This task is quiet difficult and required lots of time but by using this algorithm, it could be done in simple and easy steps. This approach mainly focuses on 3D objects in cel animation (Anjyo, 2003). In this approach a new vector field is introduced with the name of highlight vector field. It is used to define generalized highlight area. Highlight shader in this techniques is use to highlight cartoon style highlighting through different simple operations. These operations are corresponds to the direct manipulation of highlighted area. This approach is one of the best approaches for creating cartoon motion in computer images in order to give them lively and expressive effect. This technique has now become very popular because of its effectiveness.
A comparison of linear skinning techniques for character animation
Character animation term is now widely known and famous in the field of computer graphics and in animation world. Character animation is a technique or process of producing motion in characters in order to create live and expressive effect in images. One method is widely used for creating character animation is combining a simple skeleton within a character model. After embedding animation is produced with skeleton. In this approach character skin is required to sift and deform within skeleton structure. The problem in this approach is dealing with number of skinning frameworks. In this approach three linear skinning frameworks are compared which are widely used to create real time animation including Skeletal Subspace Deformation, Animation Space and Multi-Weight Enveloping(Cheung and Kanade, 2003). These skins create correspondence and number of underlying skeleton by means of weights, more weights provides greater flexibility. The quality of these frameworks are tested and examined properly in order to produce an effective resultant object. Character animation is one of the most important elements in field of computer graphics and animation (Mohr and Gleicher, 2003). In this approach it is observed that skeletal subspace deformation sows lack of flexibility in number of situations. Three frameworks are mainly examined in this approach for production of smooth output.
Composable controllers for physics-based character animation
In the field of animation, the main goal is to create virtual actors which give real effect to animations (Burridge, Rizzi, 1999). There are number of factors involved in creating such images and it is also very helpful in producing nice and creating effects in computer animation. Computer graphics and animation doesn’t look good and attractive until and unless they give realism effect with proper speed control in images. This approach presents a framework for composing controller in order to improve motor abilities of such images. The model presents in this approach is pre conditioned under which motor controllers work properly. This pre conditioned approach is based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning theory (Brenguier, 1982). This framework uses a family of controllers which are capable of synthesizing basic actions includes balancing, protective stepping, when balance is disturbed they use to rebalance and multiple ways of standing again. Dynamic motor skills are also used in this approach in order to make it more effective (Taylor, 1992). This approach promises physics based animation practitioners the interconnectivity of motor controllers and exchange of them in dynamic animations and characters (Boston Dynamic, 1998).
Nowadays, animation in graphic works has become very popular and rapid changes are also coming up in this field. Number of designers is present and working for producing new and unique animation effects based on new and old algorithms. Researchers are trying to produce effective facial and human character algorithms in order to enhance productivity. Choice of proper and authentic algorithm or method enables designers to produce high resolution images in limited time. There are different fields in which computer graphics are spreading up but still there is a wide room for improvement and enhancement particularly in all fields of graphics. Computer graphics can only give nice and smooth vision when proper approach and algorithm is used in production of animation. Speed, performance and sharpness matters a lot in field of animation for making it effective and time saving. Computer graphics and image animation is widely used in number of fields especially entertainment, arts and business.
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