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Intelligence Requests for Terrorist Attacks Prevention

Introduction and Acquaintance with the Problem

The problem with the concept of terrorism lies in the fact that terrorism is, by nature, rather disproportionate. This definition is supported by the example of ISIS, who use their violent tactics to fight against a more powerful opponent (the United States of America). Therefore, any terrorist organization is inclined to have several disproportionate advantages because they operate secretly and attack their enemy from the shadows.

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We should not forget about groups similar to Al Qaeda because such organizations do not require any disproportionate advantages. The schemes used by the administration of such groups are highly sophisticated and organized thoughtfully. It turned out that this kind of global network was able to find vulnerabilities in the political system of the US and other Western democracies. Terrorists are not concerned about carrying highly dangerous substances and, for the most part, they are willing to die for their principles and worldviews. Because terrorists only operate in the shadows, it was reasonable to address the issue using obtaining intelligence covertly.

Two main problems currently relate to ISIS and must be resolved as soon as possible. First, the number of ISIS fighters is growing significantly. This may lead to a situation where the level of disproportionate violence will become unprecedentedly excessive, and the United States will no longer be able to control terrorist attacks. In such a case, consequences might include aggressive surveillance and critical changes in the black market.

The possibility of collecting intelligence via electronic surveillance will become a limited option. Second, such activity will have a robust impact on the world economy due to the seizure of hundreds of millions of dollars. Even though this kind of information usually remains undisclosed, governments tend to track the financial roots of terrorism to fight it more effectively. ISIS is a serious threat, and something must be done to slow down the activity of this organization if not stopping it completely.

Thesis Statement

Within the framework of existing international affairs, the United States of America must address the issue of ISIS through the numerous financial, social, and governmental initiatives that may improve protective assets of the United States and minimize the number of incidents that involve the members of ISIS.

Detailed Outline

Research Method

The current research paper will be based on a literature review that will help the author to determine the key points that must be addressed in the request for intelligence. A literature review was selected because it would provide an overview of ISIS from various perspectives.

The rationale for the Report

This report is intended to disclose the size of the global threat posed by ISIS. The researcher will discuss the effects of this organization on the United States of America and provide several recommendations related to the process of eradicating this threat on a global scale.

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Annotated Bibliography

Fenwick, H. (2016). Responding to the ISIS threat: Extending coercive non-trial-based measures in the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 30(3), 174-190.

Fenwick’s (2016) research article was focused on the idea that numerous changes had to be applied to the counter-terror law. He argued that the policy was outdated while the risks were becoming increasingly excruciating (Fenwick, 2016). The author of the article associated terrorism with ISIS and claimed that this organization was the leading source of terror around the world. Fenwick (2016) proposed the application of several amendments to counter-terrorism policy to take into account several security concerns that were not addressed before. A correct vision may be a serious contributor to the development of a rational intelligence request.

Gunter, M. M. (2015). Iraq, Syria, ISIS, and the Kurds: Geostrategic concerns for the US and Turkey. Middle East Policy, 22(1), 102-111.

In his research, Gunter (2015) discussed the dangerous nature of ISIS and associated this organization’s activity with several implications for Turkey. He mentioned that the members of ISIS crossed Turkish borders effortlessly. This led him to the conclusion that a much more inclusive approach must be found (Gunter, 2015). He proposed the creation of a stronger partnership between the US and Turkey to develop intelligence cooperation.

Gunter (2015) also mentioned that the US must be responsible for planning an intervention intended to stop ISIS – but it must be done sensitively so as not to distress any social groups in Syria and Iraq. The rationale behind including this article in the annotated bibliography is its strong connection with the premises of ISIS terrorism.

Hegghammer, T., & Nesser, P. (2015). Assessing the Islamic State’s commitment to attacking the West. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(4).

In their research article, Hegghammer and Nessler (2015) discussed the ISIS attacks on the West. They also investigated the activity of this terrorist organization in Europe and hypothesized on its future impact on the state of affairs in the world. They confirmed that ISIS representatives preferred decentralized attacks and were not personally involved in each of the attacks (Hegghammer & Nessler, 2015). The authors of this research article advocated for raising awareness regarding terrorist plots because ISIS resources allow them to plan and perform new attacks.

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Liow, J. C. (2014). ISIS goes to Asia. Foreign Affairs, 19, 1-4.

Liow (2014) addressed the issue of the advent of numerous jihadist leaders,k including those outside the Middle Eastern area. The ideology of Islamic State representatives was identified even in Asia. This poses a threat to policymakers both in the United States and several Asian countries. Within the framework of developing an intelligence request, this article is a useful assistant because it includes information regarding the conflicts in the area and the most important challenges that limit existing policy.

Orhan, O. (2014). Struggle against ISIS, border crossings, and Turkey. ORSAM Review of Regional Affairs, 7(11), 1-12.

In his research, Orhan (2014) addressed the threat of ISIS and extensively outlined its objectives. He stated that this terrorist organization was created in Iraq and gained authority due to the amount of violence that had been sparked by the civil war in Syria. This situation created a power vacuum and allowed ISIS to gain a leading position (Orhan, 2014). Within a short period, the organization was able to take over Iraq and extend its control from the Iranian border to Mosul.

rhan (2014) reviewed the discourse of Western media on the subject and discovered that consolidation of power became possible due to numerous outside fighters that came to Syria to support the organization. The author of the article interpreted the available information unpretentiously and evaluated the impact of neighboring countries on the development of ISIS (Orhan, 2014). This article is helpful because it provides the reader with insights regarding the ISIS threat and explains the current position of the United States.

Walt, S. M. (2015). ISIS as a revolutionary state. Foreign Affairs, 94, 42-51.

The research project conducted by Walt (2015) can be seen as an examination of the aftermath of the deadly actions of ISIS. He mentioned the massacre that took place in Paris in 2015 and stated that the role of ISIS had to be re-evaluated (Walt, 2015). He believed that the United States must develop new protective measures to increase the level of security and approach the ISIS threat from all available perspectives. Nonetheless, Walt (2015) also mentioned that the Human Rights Act should be taken into consideration because an appropriate jurisprudence had to be reckoned with as well. The implementation of Human Rights in the intelligence request will also be considered.

Wood, G. (2015). What ISIS wants. The Atlantic, 315(2), 78-94.

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Woods (2015) critically examined the existing Counter-Terrorism and Security Act and the impact it has had on ISIS. After that, he extended the discussion and came up with a series of measures intended to minimize the threat coming from the majority of terrorist suspects. Similar to Orhan (2014), Woods (2015) found that numerous individuals crossed their borders to help ISIS. He proposed to introduce exclusion orders that would limit certain persons from going to Syria in (hypothetically) support of ISIS. This article may be useful because it sheds light on the idea of travel restrictions.

Zhang, X., & Hellmueller, L. (2016). Transnational media coverage of the ISIS threat: A global perspective? International Journal of Communication, 10, 20-25.

In their research, Zhang and Hellmueller (2014) examined the effects of global journalism on perceptions of terrorism and ISIS. They compared the news stories in different countries to identify whether the Islamic State was a real threat, not a news flash. Zhang and Hellmueller’s (2014) investigation helped them to discover that there were both differences and similarities in the representation of news across the world. The authors of the article conducted a quantitative analysis of their findings and claimed that, for the most part, Western and Middle Eastern news coverage features were opposing. The findings from this article could be used to develop an unbiased approach to the creation of an intelligence request.

A Detailed Evaluation of the Threat

The problem with the concept of terrorism lies in the fact that terrorism is, by nature, rather disproportionate. This definition is supported by the example of ISIS, who use their violent tactics to fight against a more powerful opponent (the United States of America). Therefore, any terrorist organization is inclined to have several disproportionate advantages because they operate secretly and attack their enemy from the shadows.

We should not forget about groups similar to Al Qaeda because such organizations do not require any disproportionate advantages. The schemes used by the administration of such groups are highly sophisticated and organized thoughtfully.

It turned out that this kind of global network was able to find vulnerabilities in the political system of the US and other Western democracies. Terrorists are not concerned about carrying highly dangerous substances and, for the most part, they are willing to die for their principles and worldviews. Because terrorists only operate in the shadows, it was reasonable to address the issue using obtaining intelligence covertly.

Two main problems currently relate to ISIS and must be resolved as soon as possible. First, the number of ISIS fighters is growing significantly. This may lead to a situation where the level of disproportionate violence will become unprecedentedly excessive, and the United States will no longer be able to control terrorist attacks. In such a case, consequences might include aggressive surveillance and critical changes in the black market.

The possibility of collecting intelligence via electronic surveillance will become a limited option. Second, such activity will have a robust impact on the world economy due to the seizure of hundreds of millions of dollars. Even though this kind of information usually remains undisclosed, governments tend to track the financial roots of terrorism to fight it more effectively. ISIS is a serious threat, and something must be done to slow down the activity of this organization if not stopping it completely.

The current research paper will be based on a literature review that will help the author to determine key points that must be addressed in the request for intelligence. A literature review was chosen because it would provide a view on ISIS from different perspectives. This report is intended to disclose the amplitude of the global threat posed by ISIS. The researcher will discuss the implications of this organization in the United States of America and provide several recommendations associated with the process of eradicating this threat on a global scale.

In his research, Orhan (2014) addressed the threat of ISIS and extensively outlined its objectives. He stated that this terrorist organization was created in Iraq and gained authority due to the amount of violence that had been sparked by the civil war in Syria. This situation created a power vacuum and allowed ISIS to gain a leading position (Orhan, 2014). Within a short period, the organization was able to take over Iraq and extend its control from the Iranian border to Mosul. Orhan (2014) reviewed the discourse of Western media on the subject and discovered that consolidation of power became possible due to numerous outside fighters that came to Syria to support the organization.

The author of the article interpreted the available information unpretentiously and evaluated the impact of neighboring countries on the development of ISIS (Orhan, 2014). This article is helpful because it provides the reader with insights regarding the ISIS threat and explains the current position of the United States. In his research, Orhan (2014) addressed the threat of ISIS and extensively outlined its objectives. He stated that this terrorist organization was created in Iraq and gained authority due to the amount of violence that had been sparked by the civil war in Syria. This situation created a power vacuum and allowed ISIS to gain a leading position (Orhan, 2014).

Within a short period, the organization was able to take over Iraq and extend its control from the Iranian border to Mosul. Orhan (2014) reviewed the discourse of Western media on the subject and discovered that consolidation of power became possible due to numerous outside fighters that came to Syria to support the organization. The author of the article interpreted the available information unpretentiously and evaluated the impact of neighboring countries on the development of ISIS (Orhan, 2014). This article is helpful because it provides the reader with insights regarding the ISIS threat and explains the current position of the United States.

In his research, Gunter (2015) discussed the dangerous nature of ISIS and associated this organization’s activity with several implications for Turkey. He mentioned that the members of ISIS crossed Turkish borders effortlessly. This led him to the conclusion that a much more inclusive approach must be found (Gunter, 2015). He proposed the creation of a stronger partnership between the US and Turkey to develop intelligence cooperation. Gunter (2015) also mentioned that the US must be responsible for planning an intervention intended to stop ISIS – but it has to be done sensitively so as not to distress any social groups in Syria and Iraq. The rationale behind including this article in the annotated bibliography is its strong connection with the premises of ISIS terrorism.

Fenwick’s (2016) research article was focused on the idea that numerous changes had to be applied to the counter-terror law. He argued that the policy was outdated while the risks were becoming increasingly excruciating (Fenwick, 2016). The author of the article associated terrorism with ISIS and claimed that this organization was the leading source of terror around the world. Fenwick (2016) proposed the application of several amendments to counter-terrorism policy to take into account several security concerns that were not addressed before. A correct vision may be a serious contributor to the development of a rational intelligence request.

Woods (2015) critically examined the existing Counter-Terrorism and Security Act and the impact it has had on ISIS. After that, he extended the discussion and came up with a series of measures intended to minimize the threat coming from the majority of terrorist suspects. Similar to Orhan (2014), Woods (2015) found that numerous individuals crossed their borders to help ISIS. He proposed to introduce exclusion orders that would limit certain persons from going to Syria in (hypothetically) support of ISIS. This article may be useful because it sheds light on the idea of travel restrictions.

The research project conducted by Walt (2015) can be seen as an examination of the aftermath of the deadly actions of ISIS. He mentioned the massacre that took place in Paris in 2015 and stated that the role of ISIS had to be re-evaluated (Walt, 2015). He believed that the United States must develop new protective measures to increase the level of security and approach the ISIS threat from all available perspectives.

Nonetheless, Walt (2015) also mentioned that the Human Rights Act should be taken into consideration because an appropriate jurisprudence had to be reckoned with as well. The implementation of Human Rights in the intelligence request will also be considered.

In their research, Zhang and Hellmueller (2014) examined the effects of global journalism on perceptions of terrorism and ISIS. They compared the news stories in different countries to identify whether the Islamic State was a real threat, not a news flash. Zhang and Hellmueller’s (2014) investigation helped them to discover that there were both differences and similarities in the representation of news across the world.

The authors of the article conducted a quantitative analysis of their findings and claimed that, for the most part, Western and Middle Eastern news coverage features were opposing. The findings from this article could be used to develop an unbiased approach to the creation of an intelligence request. In their research article, Hegghammer and Nessler (2015) discussed the ISIS attacks on the West. They also investigated the activity of this terrorist organization in Europe and hypothesized on its future impact on the state of affairs in the world.

They confirmed that ISIS representatives preferred decentralized attacks and were not personally involved in each of the attacks (Hegghammer & Nessler, 2015). The authors of this research article advocated for raising awareness regarding terrorist plots because ISIS resources allow them to plan and perform new attacks. Liow (2014) addressed the issue of the advent of numerous jihadist leaders,k including those outside the Middle Eastern area.

The ideology of Islamic State representatives was identified even in Asia. This poses a threat to policymakers both in the United States and several Asian countries. Within the framework of developing an intelligence request, this article is a useful assistant because it includes information regarding the conflicts in the area and the most important challenges that limit existing policy.

Intelligence Assets and Capability

The first intelligence asset that must be taken into consideration within the framework of the current intelligence request is the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). This service functions externally and specializes in gathering defense and military intelligence. One of the DIA’s critical functions revolves around informing the US policymakers about the actions performed by non-state actors and the capabilities of foreign governments.

Additionally, DIA agents are required to provide intelligence support to coordinate military intelligence components successfully. This kind of integration is important because some of these uniformed services are organizationally isolated from the DIA. The second intelligence asset is the National Security Agency (NSA). This intelligence agency operates under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence and is connected to the US Department of Defense.

The purpose of this agency is to collect data on foreign intelligence and ensure that this information is used for counterintelligence purposes. The third intellectual asset of the United States that is advisable to include in the list of active anti-ISIS agencies is the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). The most important thing about this intellectual asset is that it collects and analyzes data on national security on a geospatial level. This means that it can also serve as a combat support agency if necessary.

The combination of these three intelligence assets is expected to contribute to anti-ISIS measures in several ways. First of all, this amalgamation of intellectual assets of the United States will guarantee the possibility of global monitoring. The US will gain access to various types of information regarding terrorism that can be processed and turned into supportive evidence against ISIS. Second, counterintelligence and foreign intelligence will allow the United States to build positive relationships with other countries that are fighting ISIS. Also, the country will be able to protect its communications networks and information systems because of a complex structure of the intellectual assets available to the United States of America mentioned above.

Request for Intelligence (RFI)

Tearing Production and Dissemination: RFI on ISIS

Dear Sirs/Madams:

There is a need to focus on the history and areas of operation of ISIS to be able to collect more data regarding the territories (including cities and countries as well) that fall under the concept of the areas of operation of this terrorist organization.

This request for intelligence also emphasizes the importance of research on the key figures and leaders of this movement. Here, two main directions for collecting intelligence are proposed – sympathetic figures outside the ISIS and the key leaders within the organization.

Also, this request for intelligence concentrates on the necessity to obtain more information regarding the structure and hierarchy of ISIS to understand the way this organization functions.

The data on the military strength of ISIS is also vital. The intelligence on ISIS tactics and fighting power has to be collected as well to ensure that the types of weapons and preferred methods of combat are known to the available United States intelligence assets.

Please, collect more data on ISIS’s plans and make sure that all necessary resources intended to help against this organization are allocated properly and each US citizen is protected.

Let the government validate all procurements and contracts that will reveal more information regarding the intents of ISIS members. The implementation of the new anti-terrorism policy will rely on the association consisting of DIA, NSA, and NGA.

Please, produce the above-mentioned records as soon as possible, as the DHS Advisory Council must learn the most recent as well as accurate information on ISIS.

Yours truly,

NAME

Advisory Official to the DHS

DHS Recommendations to Law Enforcement Agencies

Several recommendations are projected to increase the chances of successful implementation of a renewed policy. On a global level, the US proposes to create and sponsor international intelligence centers in Europe, including members from all nations that decided to take part in the process of eradicating ISIS and managing refugees. On a national level, this initiative would allow the countries to collect and exchange relevant data on the subject of terrorism.

Organizationally speaking, these international intelligence centers would be similar to Interpol but include more joint operations with broader insights regarding terrorism. The second recommendation for US law enforcement agencies and the intellectual assets assembly is to strangle ISIS funds. Any acknowledged ISIS transactions and financial accounts should be confiscated, sustained, and prohibited. This should be true for both international and local structures. Third, the US should concentrate on stopping the oil flow that goes through Turkey.

In the future, this approach is projected to help the United States develop the local infrastructure from scratch and gain positive control over the lands that were occupied by ISIS representatives. The fourth recommendation for law enforcement agencies relates to local security. The country should strive to augment border security (even if it may require draconian measures). The government expects to stop illegal immigration and monitor students and tourists more thoroughly.

It may be possible to develop a response system that would be based on the collaboration of military forces and US citizens. This would release the burden from specific agencies and leave these operations to the joint organization outlined above. The last recommendation is to establish a counter-terrorism center that would operate solely on the territory of the United States of America and intentionally lack several executive privileges. Regardless of their local status, such interdepartmental bodies would be able to function on behalf of the President of the United States and initiate immediate reactions to local emergencies.

Conclusion

The analysis of literature that was conducted within the framework of this intelligence request discusses the fact that ISIS is not as global as its predecessors from the 2000s, though its ambiguity is difficult to interpret. The representatives of this terrorist organization do not talk openly about their plans but international terrorist attacks still tend to happen from time to time and it is assumed that ISIS plans to extend their authority and influence the West even more.

The higher echelons of this complex organization are not involved in any of ISIS’s dealings directly, and this seriously impacts the possibility to protect the United States from damage. One of the issues that must be approached in the nearest future is the growing number of ISIS supporters from all over the world. This so-called individual jihad and the high-scale terrorist acts are the main focuses of the intelligence request compiled within the framework of the current paper.

The ideological groundwork promoted by the Islamic State should be considered irrelevant. The government of the United States must pursue the leaders of the Islamic State and develop major operations intended to eradicate terrorism. The current RFI does not make any predictions and provides the government with several strategic decisions that are projected to improve the current state of affairs in terms of the terrorist threat.

US initiatives should not end at deterrence attempts, as the Islamic State has many opportunities to go global and in such cases, it will become impossible to stop the growing terrorism rates. This is why the current request for intelligence is focused on creating a powerful association that will be capable of dealing with such a powerful enemy as ISIS and potential financial, social, and governmental consequences of their actions.

References

Fenwick, H. (2016). Responding to the ISIS threat: Extending coercive non-trial-based measures in the counter-terrorism and security act 2015. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 30(3), 174-190.

Gunter, M. M. (2015). Iraq, Syria, ISIS and the Kurds: Geostrategic concerns for the US and Turkey. Middle East Policy, 22(1), 102-111.

Hegghammer, T., & Nesser, P. (2015). Assessing the Islamic State’s commitment to attacking the West. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(4).

Liow, J. C. (2014). ISIS goes to Asia. Foreign Affairs, 19, 1-4.

Orhan, O. (2014). Struggle against ISIS, border crossings and Turkey. ORSAM Review of Regional Affairs, 7(11), 1-12.

Walt, S. M. (2015). ISIS as revolutionary state. Foreign Affairs, 94, 42-51.

Wood, G. (2015). What ISIS really wants. The Atlantic, 315(2), 78-94.

Zhang, X., & Hellmueller, L. (2016). Transnational media coverage of the ISIS threat: A global perspective? International Journal of Communication, 10, 20-25.

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StudyCorgi. (2020, December 29). Intelligence Requests for Terrorist Attacks Prevention. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/intelligence-requests-for-terrorist-attacks-prevention/

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StudyCorgi. 2020. "Intelligence Requests for Terrorist Attacks Prevention." December 29, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/intelligence-requests-for-terrorist-attacks-prevention/.

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StudyCorgi. (2020) 'Intelligence Requests for Terrorist Attacks Prevention'. 29 December.

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