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Kant’s Morality and Utilitarianism

Morality is impossible without freedom, since if a person’s actions are determined by the will of God or the laws of nature, then one cannot speak of morality or morality, since then there is no responsibility. Kant believed that a person’s actions in moral terms could be determined by three factors: duty, inclination, and fear (Rundell, 2020). Duty is a requirement arising from reason, defining obligations towards oneself and other people, as well as towards humanity as a whole (Rundell, 2020). An inclination is a need, the satisfaction of which brings us pleasure or benefit. Fear is a feeling that says that the consequence of an ongoing event will be displeasure or harm. According to Kant, if an act is in accordance with duty but also in accordance with inclination, then this means that it is not moral (Rundell, 2020). But such an act is not immoral either, since it corresponds to duty. Kant calls such an act his legal, that is, in accordance with the law, but without moral content.

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To obey the imperative means to control oneself, and this is always necessary. Since Kant, there are two types of imperatives: hypothetical and categorical. The hypothetical imperative is subject to some condition, which is usually determined by the goal pursued. In contrast, the categorical imperative is free from any conditions (Rundell, 2020). He does not set himself any goal. These are moral imperatives that are absolute: they have nothing to do with success or results, caution or dexterity; their duty dictates.

Utilitarianism is a direction in ethics, according to which the moral value of behavior or act is determined by its usefulness. The usefulness of an act refers to the integral pleasure or happiness received by all affected parties during the duration of the effects of the act (Mill, 2020). Deontology is the doctrine of the problems of morality and ethics, a section of ethics. When evaluating a completed action, deontology is guided by its compliance or non-compliance with certain rules (Mill, 2020). Sometimes it is called the ethics of duty or duty, or the ethical system based on the rules of conduct, since they are the basis of the concept of duty. Based on the analysis above, utilitarianism is a more effective theory, since utility is usually the essence of any behavior (Mill, 2020). In other words, society measures the necessity and relevance of the individual precisely in his coefficient of efficiency.

References

Mill, J. S. (2020). Utilitarianism. Is a classic explosion and defence. Independently Published.

Rundell, J. (2020). Kant: Anthropology, imagination, freedom. Taylor & Francis.

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