In accordance to Dictionary.com, LLC (2009) Efficiency is defined as “the state or quality of being efficient; competency in performance” (Dictionary.com, 2009). It further defines the term as an “accomplishment of or ability to accomplish a job with a minimum expenditure of time and effort: The assembly line increased industry’s efficiency” (Dictionary.com, 2009). It also defines ‘efficiency’ as “the ratio of the work done or energy developed by a machine, engine, etc., to the energy supplied to it, usually expressed as a percentage” (Dictionary.com, 2009). However, Oxford University Press (2009) defines the term as “the state or quality of being efficient” (Oxford University Press, 2009) and “an action intended to achieve efficiency” (Oxford University Press, 2009).
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In the context of e-governance, there is no direct definition but it can be stated that with proper implementation, the e-government is a methodology that measures and communicates the physical progress of a project taking into account the work completed, the time, and the costs incurred to complete that work. To measure and control, the e-government System defines the scope of the work; sets up a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS); develops a Project Master Schedule (PMS) showing when every Work Package (W/P) will be carried out; allocates budget costs to each Work Package; establishes a practical way of measuring the actual work completed, and sets the Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB). Together with the progression of integrated project management, the use of e-government, continuous growth in government and industry, professional associations such as the Project Management Institute are appropriate bodies to define e-government’s proper place in the global project management community providing experience and setting standards. (Nerkar 2008)
Oxford University Press (2009) defines the term ‘productivity as “the state or quality of being productive” (Oxford University Press, 2009) and “the effectiveness of productive effort” (Oxford University Press, 2009). On the other hand, Princeton education (2009)at the wordnetweb defines the term as “the quality of being productive or having the power to produce” (Princeton education, 2009). It also defines it as an economic term as “the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time” (Princeton education, 2009). However, EPA (2009) defines the term ‘Productivity’ in a more thorough manner. It states that productivity is “The relationship between the production of output and one, some, or all of the resource inputs used in accomplishing the assigned task. It is measured as a ratio of output per unit of input over time. It is a measure of efficiency and is usually considered as output per person-hour” (EPA, 2009).
Similar to the term ‘efficiency’, there is no direct definition of productivity in terms of e-government. However, Productivity in terms of e-government means an unremitting and recurring management method, comprised of strategizing performance variables, evaluating performance, supervising performance, reviewing performance, acknowledging and rewarding performance, and enhancing performance. The system is in consort with the organization’s objectives and priorities and is aligned with company and business plans and policies. The system reflects a potent tactical focus, with performance and accomplishments that promote corporate ideologies being suitably acknowledged and rewarded. The contribution of the workforce representation in designing the system is ensured because its implementation needs to be acknowledged and feasible at all organizational echelons. (Thomas and Velthouse 1999)
Dictionary.com. (2009). Efficiency. Dictionary.com, LLC. Web.
EPA. (2009). Productivity. EPA.gov. Web.
Nerkar, A. (2008) ‘Determinants of invention commercialization: an empirical examination of academically sourced inventions’, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1155-1166.
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Oxford University Press. (2009). Efficiency. Oxford University Press. Web.
Oxford University Press. (2009). Productivity. Oxford University Press. Web.
Princeton education. (2009). Productivity. wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Web.
Thomas, K.W. and Velthouse, B.A. (1999) ‘Cognitive elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation’, Academy of Management Review, vol. 15, pp-666-681.