The types of care that are maintained in healthcare institutions largely determine the nature of a particular treatment plan, the features of recovery, and patient outcomes. Based on the analysis of a specific methodology used by medical specialists as the primary means of assistance, it is possible to determine the effectiveness of the approach utilized and its merits.
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In order to assess the nuances of health assistance, it is necessary to consider three existing care practices – primary, secondary, and tertiary. Specific cases can help to study the characteristics of each of these techniques and understand the typical features of treatment promoted through these care principles.
Case of Primary Prevention
As a situation for analysis, the case of the patient who has complained of a sore throat, fever, and weakness will be considered. On the basis of the examination, the diagnosis of purulent tonsillitis is made, and appropriate treatment is prescribed in the form of antibiotics, oral rinsing, and vitamins that support the body. As the inadmissibility of the infection spread, the patient is asked to limit contact with relatives and other people and spend more time in a separate room. These measures are relevant, and the level of primary prevention may be identified.
When analyzing the case from the point of view of practical methodology, it can be noted that it corresponds to the theory of primary care comprehensively. According to Edelman, Kudzma, and Mandle (2013), the feature of this principle of assistance is that “people are also taught to use appropriate primary preventive measures” (p. 11). The recommendations given to the patient regarding the ways of maintaining health confirm the relevance of this approach.
Moreover, as Fletcher, Fletcher, and Fletcher (2012) note, one of the peculiarities of primary prevention is the desire to help patients to adopt certain lifestyle habits. In the context of the National Clearinghouse guidelines, in this case, the preventive measures taken by the medical professional correspond to the domains of this type of care (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [AHRQ], 2018). Therefore, based on the analysis of the situation, the utilization of the primary prevention method is justified.
Case of Secondary Prevention
The patient turns to the attending physician for help complaining of periodic headaches and the feeling of increased fatigue. Also, weakness is noted as a frequent condition, particularly after physical exertion. One of the examination points indicates that the patient has a hereditary predisposition to arterial hypertension. In this regard, the course of screening tests is appointed in order to confirm or deny this diagnosis. Regular blood pressure measurements can help to receive a comprehensive picture and prevent the development of the serious form of the disease.
Based on the available data, it can be assumed that the selected secondary care method is appropriate. According to Fletcher et al. (2012), “secondary prevention is a two-step process, involving a screening test and follow-up diagnosis and treatment for those with the condition of interest” (p. 154). In this case, susceptibility to the hereditary disease can be determined through timely checkups and regular tests.
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As Edelman et al. (2013) remark, junior medical employees play a significant role in this type of care since these are them who conduct all the necessary tests and make clinical expertise. When evaluating this case in the framework of the National Clearinghouse guidelines, it suits the provisions of the requirements given in the official documents and corresponds to the practice of secondary prevention (AHRQ, 2018). Therefore, the aforementioned principle of care may be applied to help the patient to avoid severe health outcomes.
Case of Tertiary Prevention
A young man who has undergone treatment from injuries received while serving in the army is in a state of depression. Mood shifts indicate a psychological trauma, and symptoms manifest themselves in the form of the lack of desire to contact people and to return to normal life. As a stimulant treatment, the use of special beta-blocking drugs is prescribed, which affects the amount of serotonin. The use of this intervention may allow the patient to avoid the state of depression and anxiety.
This type of work displays tertiary care as one of the ways of preventing the development of a severe mental disorder. According to Solomon et al. (2014), tertiary care “focuses on managing manifest disease and its complications, and maximizing quality of life” (p. 233). The intake of beta-blockers is aimed at eliminating those symptoms that can lead to deterioration. As Edelman et al. (2013) argue, at the level of tertiary prevention, medical specialists help patients maintain a normal state regardless of the degree of the initial disease manifestation.
Also, when taking into account the National Clearinghouse guidelines, all the findings demonstrate a strong connection between the patient’s initial state and related symptoms, proving the conditions of the treatment domains (AHRQ, 2018). Therefore, this case illustrates the tertiary level of prevention as an appropriate medical intervention.
All three ways of prevention can be analyzed on the basis of medical cases in relation to specific situations. Each of the approaches suggests following certain conditions and factors, and different states affect the type of work. Primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention are maintained in accordance with national standards of care. Applying an appropriate methodology in the process of identifying a problem is an important procedure that determines the course of recovery.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2018). NGC and NQMC Inclusion Criteria. Web.
Edelman, C. L., Kudzma, E. C., & Mandle, C. L. (2013). Health promotion throughout the life span (8th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby.
Fletcher, R. H., Fletcher, S. W., & Fletcher, G. S. (2012). Clinical epidemiology: The essentials (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Solomon, A., Mangialasche, F., Richard, E., Andrieu, S., Bennett, D. A., Breteler, M.,… Skoog, I. (2014). Advances in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Journal of Internal Medicine, 275(3), 229-250. Web.