History of the Native Americans
- Settlement in small separate groups
- Spread across the territory of America
- Struggle with colonizers for survival
- Participation in various military conflicts (Kiel, 2016)
- Victims of genocide and extermination
- Obtaining the right of autonomy
History of the Navajo Heritage
- Migration from the northern regions
- Independence from the Spanish colonialists
- Settlement in the southern states
- Life in reservations after the conquest
- Cattle-breeding as the main employment
- Conflict with the people of Hopi
Values of the Native Americans
- Honoring the history of ancestors
- The value of natural resources
- Love for animals and plants
- The cult of spiritual power
- Religious relationship with the environment
- Wisdom and aspiration to self-knowledge
Values of the Navajo Heritage
- The followers of Christian values
- Love for animals and farming
- The protection of the land
- Strong cultural connection with ancestors
- Spiritual self-knowledge through religious beliefs
- Wars for the sake of independence
The worldview of the Culture
- Ancestors are the custodians of knowledge (Lee, 2016)
- Land protection is a sacred duty.
- Global expansion across the country
- Similar ideals and common values
- The total denial of wealth
- The acceptance of life in reservations
Communication Patterns of the Native Americans
- The absence of complex vocabulary
- The use of primitive lexicon
- Frequent reluctance to long conversations
- Sentences are short and not extended.
- Minimal verbal contact with interlocutors
- Undeveloped communication and conversation skills
Communication Patterns of the Navajo Heritage
- The threat of language disappearance
- Common tendency to use English
- Animate nouns play an important role.
- The simplicity of lexical constructions
- Rare use of long sentences
- The predomination of nonverbal communication
Art of the Native Americans
- Folklore texts and songs
- The preservation of ancestors’ traditions
- The festivals of folk art (Jacobsen-Bia, 2014)
- Shows for visitors and guests
- Different dances with religious overtones
- A small number of written works
Art of the Navajo Heritage
- The development of textile art
- Traditional sacred drawing with sand
- Festivals for tourists and guests
- Highly developed pottery and ceramic art
- Texts with national songs and stories
- The close connection of art and nature
Norms and Rules
- Accurate observance of ancient traditions
- The veneration of ancestors and spirits
- Attention to the human soul
- Respect for old age and wisdom
- Nature is a sacred world.
- The protection of culture by any means
- Hunting and farming are dominant.
- Achieving harmony with nature
- Grouping in reservations and communes
- Strong connection with the religious world
- Household items borrowed from the past
- The prevalence of the agricultural sphere
- A collectivist type of culture (Hatch, 2016)
- The relationships of the strong dependence
- The absence of independent decisions
- Support from the members of communes
- Confrontations are impolite and undesirable.
- A monochronic type of behavior
- Belief in the existence of gods
- Cognition with dreams and visions
- A happy life after death
- Shamans and healers in reservations
- Religious rites and ceremonies
- Nature as one of the main gods
Degree of Assimilation
- Interracial families are found.
- Close contact with non-indigenous people
- The popularization of a native experience
- Reservations still exist today
- Borrowing clothes and household items (Pasqualetti, Jones, Necefer, Scott, & Colombi, 2016)
- Gradual rooting of the English language
Degree of Marginalization
- Not all children are educated.
- Attempts to renounce modern ideals.
- The neglect of social opinion.
- A special view of the world.
- The tactics of indifference to others.
- Non-participation in political events.
Health Behaviors and Healthcare Professionals’ Approaches
- Treatment with herbs and folk remedies.
- Appeal to shamans and healers.
- The prevalence of traditional medicine.
- Medical education to improve the situation.
- Individual work with indigenous people.
- Convenient conditions for obtaining medical services.
Hatch, R. B. (2016). “Lords of New Mexico”: Raiding culture in pre-reservation Navajo society. Journal of the Southwest, 58(2), 311-334.
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Jacobsen-Bia, K. (2014). Radmilla’s voice: Music genre, blood quantum, and belonging on the Navajo nation. Cultural Anthropology, 29(2), 385-410.
Kiel, D. (2016). An indigenous peoples’ history of the United States. Journal of American History, 103(2), 448-449.
Lee, L. L. (2016). Traditional Navajo identity markers in a 21st century world. American Journal of Indigenous Studies, 1(1), B1-B8.
Pasqualetti, M. J., Jones, T. E., Necefer, L., Scott, C. A., & Colombi, B. J. (2016). A paradox of plenty: Renewable energy on Navajo nation lands. Society & Natural Resources, 29(8), 885-899.