Native Americans and Navajo Heritage

History of the Native Americans

  • Settlement in small separate groups
  • Spread across the territory of America
  • Struggle with colonizers for survival
  • Participation in various military conflicts (Kiel, 2016)
  • Victims of genocide and extermination
  • Obtaining the right of autonomy

History of the Navajo Heritage

  • Migration from the northern regions
  • Independence from the Spanish colonialists
  • Settlement in the southern states
  • Life in reservations after the conquest
  • Cattle-breeding as the main employment
  • Conflict with the people of Hopi

Values of the Native Americans

  • Honoring the history of ancestors
  • The value of natural resources
  • Love for animals and plants
  • The cult of spiritual power
  • Religious relationship with the environment
  • Wisdom and aspiration to self-knowledge

Values of the Navajo Heritage

  • The followers of Christian values
  • Love for animals and farming
  • The protection of the land
  • Strong cultural connection with ancestors
  • Spiritual self-knowledge through religious beliefs
  • Wars for the sake of independence

The worldview of the Culture

  • Ancestors are the custodians of knowledge (Lee, 2016)
  • Land protection is a sacred duty.
  • Global expansion across the country
  • Similar ideals and common values
  • The total denial of wealth
  • The acceptance of life in reservations

Communication Patterns of the Native Americans

  • The absence of complex vocabulary
  • The use of primitive lexicon
  • Frequent reluctance to long conversations
  • Sentences are short and not extended.
  • Minimal verbal contact with interlocutors
  • Undeveloped communication and conversation skills

Communication Patterns of the Navajo Heritage

  • The threat of language disappearance
  • Common tendency to use English
  • Animate nouns play an important role.
  • The simplicity of lexical constructions
  • Rare use of long sentences
  • The predomination of nonverbal communication

Art of the Native Americans

  • Folklore texts and songs
  • The preservation of ancestors’ traditions
  • The festivals of folk art (Jacobsen-Bia, 2014)
  • Shows for visitors and guests
  • Different dances with religious overtones
  • A small number of written works

Art of the Navajo Heritage

  • The development of textile art
  • Traditional sacred drawing with sand
  • Festivals for tourists and guests
  • Highly developed pottery and ceramic art
  • Texts with national songs and stories
  • The close connection of art and nature

Norms and Rules

  • Accurate observance of ancient traditions
  • The veneration of ancestors and spirits
  • Attention to the human soul
  • Respect for old age and wisdom
  • Nature is a sacred world.
  • The protection of culture by any means

Lifestyle Characteristics

  • Hunting and farming are dominant.
  • Achieving harmony with nature
  • Grouping in reservations and communes
  • Strong connection with the religious world
  • Household items borrowed from the past
  • The prevalence of the agricultural sphere

Relationship Patterns

  • A collectivist type of culture (Hatch, 2016)
  • The relationships of the strong dependence
  • The absence of independent decisions
  • Support from the members of communes
  • Confrontations are impolite and undesirable.
  • A monochronic type of behavior

Common Rituals

  • Belief in the existence of gods
  • Cognition with dreams and visions
  • A happy life after death
  • Shamans and healers in reservations
  • Religious rites and ceremonies
  • Nature as one of the main gods

Degree of Assimilation

  • Interracial families are found.
  • Close contact with non-indigenous people
  • The popularization of a native experience
  • Reservations still exist today
  • Borrowing clothes and household items (Pasqualetti, Jones, Necefer, Scott, & Colombi, 2016)
  • Gradual rooting of the English language

Degree of Marginalization

  • Not all children are educated.
  • Attempts to renounce modern ideals.
  • The neglect of social opinion.
  • A special view of the world.
  • The tactics of indifference to others.
  • Non-participation in political events.

Health Behaviors and Healthcare Professionals’ Approaches

  • Treatment with herbs and folk remedies.
  • Appeal to shamans and healers.
  • The prevalence of traditional medicine.
  • Medical education to improve the situation.
  • Individual work with indigenous people.
  • Convenient conditions for obtaining medical services.


Hatch, R. B. (2016). “Lords of New Mexico”: Raiding culture in pre-reservation Navajo society. Journal of the Southwest, 58(2), 311-334.

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Jacobsen-Bia, K. (2014). Radmilla’s voice: Music genre, blood quantum, and belonging on the Navajo nation. Cultural Anthropology, 29(2), 385-410.

Kiel, D. (2016). An indigenous peoples’ history of the United States. Journal of American History, 103(2), 448-449.

Lee, L. L. (2016). Traditional Navajo identity markers in a 21st century world. American Journal of Indigenous Studies, 1(1), B1-B8.

Pasqualetti, M. J., Jones, T. E., Necefer, L., Scott, C. A., & Colombi, B. J. (2016). A paradox of plenty: Renewable energy on Navajo nation lands. Society & Natural Resources, 29(8), 885-899.

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