A brief history of the Native American group
- 15th century – the arrival of European colonizers
- Continuous violent conflicts with the colonizers
- August 1, 1758 – first Indian reservation established
- Diseases such as smallpox and measles
- Slavery forced relocation to spark further conflicts
- 1911 onwards – continuous non-violent efforts for equality (“Native American timeline of events,” n.d.)
A brief history of the Apache Heritage group
- Indigenous people of Alaska, Canada, Southwest US
- The nomadic lifestyle, regular relocation, and travel
- From the 1730s – conflict with the Spaniards
- 1743 – offered land in Texas
- Raids and slaughters until the mid-20th century
- Few thousands survived by the late 20th century (“Apache Indians,” n.d.)
Values of the Native American group
- Spirituality affects beliefs and choices.
- Traditions and heritage perceived as important
- Respect for elders and nature
- Patience and orientation to present
- Respect individual traits and differences
- Culture of mutualism and solidarity (“Traditional Native American values and behaviors,” n.d.)
Values of the Apache Heritage group
- Similar to Native American values
- History and heritage of the predecessors
- Solidarity and unity against difficulties
- Spirituality and traditions guide their lives
- Respect for elders in family/community
- Closeness and blood ties are important (Mescalero Apache tribe, 2017)
The worldview of the culture
- Respect for nature and its resources
- Mutualism and closeness within communities
- Importance of history and traditions
- Continuous efforts against discrimination and stereotyping
- Language and expressive culture are important
- Appreciation of differences and individuality
Language and communication patterns: Native American
- Language heritage depends on the tribe
- Multiple languages and dialects exist
- Silence is valued more than talk
- A respectful and mindful approach to communication
- Vocabulary closely tied to the original location
- Different communication schemes among tribes
Language and communication patterns: Apache Heritage
- 5 different Apachean languages
- All languages, either endangered or extinct
- Different pronunciation and inscription within the group
- Characterized by limited vocabulary/sound variety
- Follows language patterns of the native group
- Variety of accents and tones
Art and other expressive forms of the cultural Group
- Creativity was highly inspired by spirituality
- Appreciation of nature among major themes
- Paintings (sand paintings, leather designs)
- Art depended on natural resources available
- Pottery provided access to clay
- Basketry/wood carving in most tribes (“Native American art,” n.d.)
Art and other expressive forms of the socio-cultural group
- Nomad tribe, shaped by constant travel
- Mostly dresses, ceremonies, and dance
- Art used to celebrate tradition/history.
- Dance and songs using elaborate costumes
- Techniques and styles passed between generations.
- Puberty Rite Ceremony considered important (Mescalero Apache tribe, 2017)
Norms and rules
- It is highly dependent on the specific tribe.
- A great variation of norms across tribes
- Openwork ethic, nonmaterialistic orientation
- Respect for nature and resources
- Patience and humbleness are crucial.
- Hasty or aggressive behavior is criticized (“Traditional Native American values and behaviors,” n.d.)
- Live a humble lifestyle, avoid large cities.
- Small communities to ensure closeness
- Comfortable with just the basic necessities
- Respect resources and the environment
- Affectionate, supportive communities and families
- High levels of social unity (“Traditional Native American values and behaviors,” n.d.)
- Respect for the elderly people
- The experience passed on from elders to youths.
- Affective rather than verbal communication
- Strong social support within the community
- People share similar values and beliefs.
- Mutual respect and support in relationship
- Rituals and traditions depend on the tribe
- Death ceremonies are part of spiritual tradition.
- Green Corn Ceremonies in most tribes
- Puberty rituals in nomad tribes
- Healing rituals common in all tribes
- The Ghost Dance – a symbol of hope
Degree of assimilation from mainstream society
- Forced assimilation by the government
- The General Allotment Act of 1887
- Forced adoption of European values/lifestyle
- Caused the strengthening of indigenous identity
- Assimilation through education (boarding schools)
- Preservation of cultural and linguistic identity
Degree of marginalization from mainstream society
- Persistent racism against Native Americans
- Past history of conflict and marginalization
- Cautious behavior towards other communities
- Social/economic injustice contribute to the marginalization
- Native American rights efforts and movements
- The decline of cultural identity in youths
Health behaviors and practices
- A disproportionate burden of certain diseases
- High-risk behaviors prevalent throughout the group
- Widespread tobacco smoking and physical inactivity
- Unhealthy nutritional choices leading to obesity
- Low fruit and vegetable consumption
- Impaired health-seeking behavior, e.g., cancer screening (Cobb, Espey, King, 2014)
Differential approaches needed by health care professionals for each group
- Promote health-seeking behaviors within the group
- Ensure culturally appropriate care (transcultural nursing)
- Promote knowledge of healthy behaviors
- Adapt interventions for the specific group
- Ensure further research of health behaviors/interventions
- Strengthen primary prevention in indigenous communities (Cobb et al., 2014).
Apache Indians. (n.d.). Web.
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Cobb, N., Espey, D., & King, J. (2014). Health behaviors and risk factors among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 2000–2010. Journal Information, 104(3), 481-489.
Mescalero Apache Tribe. (2017). Our culture. Web.
Native American art. (n.d.). Web.
Native American timeline of events. (n.d.). Web.
Traditional Native American values and behaviors. (n.d.). Web.