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Obesity: Cause and Treatment

Introduction: The Identification and Significance of the Health Issues

The sphere of contemporary medicine faces the problem obesity as a troublesome trend that proceeds to embrace the global citizens. The issue of overweight pertains to the so-called “American lifestyle”, which signifies fast food consummation as a payoff of the fleeting daily activities. Thus, it is said that the U.S. citizens fall into the category of top obesity-prone populations. Today, however, the problem extended to the scopes of all world megapolises.

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It is crucial to identify a precise definition of obesity so that to perceive the specifications of the disease. Thus, it should be taken into consideration that the illness may be described only in correlation with the Body Mass Index (BMJ). This screening tool is based on a simple quantification and may be deduced through a person’s weight being divided by the height meters. Accordingly, the medical experts outline some standard weight ranges that determine whether a person has some problems with obesity or not. The index parameters differ, due to the age. Thus, teens and children’s weight norm is differentiated with an account of the growing stage while the adults’ mass is calculated, according to the standard range indication. Specifically, the BMI that is preserved in the range from 18 to 25 among grown-ups is considered to signalize average weight. Consequently, if the index number is high, the person faces the problem of obesity. Concerning children, one does not outline the standard index parameters since the BMI, in this case, depends heavily on personal height, precise age category, and some other factors. Modern medical tools offer some electronic calculators that assist both the doctors and the parents in quantifying the BMI for children.

Since the problem of obesity gradually acquires a status of global medical concern, the studies of the reasons that lead to the disease are critical in this respect. Due to the numerous investigations, one emphasizes three primary categories of grounds. These are poor diet, sleep deprivation, enhanced level of anxiety, and lack of physical activity. Therefore, the basic obesity treatment programs include references to the mentioned aspects.

The significance of the problem eradication stems from two fundamental public health implications. First, the medical specialists regard obesity as a considerable health threat since it leads to the development of cardiovascular complications (Appel et al., 2011). Second, the issue promotes obesity stigmatization, which disrupts the emotional and mental stability of the patients as well as initiates social threatening (Puhl & Heuer, 2010). Thus, people, who are likely to put on weight, tend to adopt cautious and frightful conducts since they live in fear of being teased, due to their abnormal weight. The dispute is relevant to me, for an enormous number of my friends and acquaintances suffer from social prejudices that are evoked by their overweight. Thus, as a conscious citizen, I am highly motivated to find a consistent solution for the obesity problem.

Targeting Audiences: Community Implications

Obesity problem refers to the general public health concerns since it focuses on the cross-population cohorts. Therefore, there are no particular groups of individuals, who are excluded from the obesity at-risk community, unless one refers to ill people, who are physically unable to gain weight. Nevertheless, the specialists in the sphere of social sciences claim that one can differentiate certain community groups that are classified according to the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors.

According to the results of the recent evidence-based investigation that was conducted by a group of Californian scientists, the citizens with low incomes and poor educational backgrounds are likely to suffer from obesity disease more frequently than those people, who come from the wealthy social cohorts (Braveman, Cubbin, Egerter, Williams, & Pamuk, 2010). The tendency is explained through the common assumption, due to which the individuals with stable financial incomes have the opportunities to stick to healthy nutrition as well as perform regular physical activities. The study indicated the ethnic characteristics of obesity eviction as well. Thus, according to the findings of the work, non-Hispanic Whites and Afro-Americans constitute a group of overweight-prone citizens while the Hispanic community is claimed to be less vulnerable to the problem. However, the medical experts adopt a skeptic attitude towards the data since it is acknowledged that obesity is rather a subjective problem then an ethnic deviancy.

Besides, there is a strict opposition between child and adult obesity since there are different treatment programs that are dedicated to the age cohorts. The difference between the representatives of two groups is stipulated by contrasting reasons for obesity. Thus, children, who have some overweight since they are born, are targeted by the genetic factors that inflicted the problem. In contrast to them, adults may suffer from both genetic obesity and lifestyle-dependent overweight. Both cohorts face the same illness consequences. However, it is claimed that adults, who are genetically not obesity-prone have more chances to dispose of the problem.

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Intervention Practices: A Study of Multilevel Obesity Treatment Foundation

The contemporary College Health Nursing practices account for the prevention of obesity on the initial stages of the disease development as well as the implementation of efficient intervention techniques that target the illness.

The foundation of professional academic treatment relies on a complex collaboration between the physicians, nursing organizations, and agencies. The stratum of the specialists’ opinions evicts the tendencies that direct the treatment programs. Thus, modern medical professionals investigate two fundamental issues: the weight loss rate and the adoption of lifestyle alterations as a way to treat obesity. Thus, due to the general doctors’ opinion, the most appropriate method of overweight reduction is a development of fast or moderate treatment programs (Nackers, Ross, & Perri, 2010). This conclusion defines the work of College Health Nursing practices and promotes professional weight management through the planning of rapid remedy programming. The work of nursing organizations is primarily directed to the separate sections of obesity treatment. Specifically, the organizational institutions that specialize in nutritional practices focus on the dietary regimes development while sports communities account for the elaboration of effective physical activity plans. The separate achievements of contemporary organizations are taken into consideration while implementing the treatment programs in College Health Nursing. Finally, the agencies relate to the legal grounding of obesity medication usage as well as a development of intervention strategies. For instance, the U.S. Food and Drug Agency handles a verification of obesity medicine effects as well as approving the official usage of drugs. The work of College Health Nursing should rely on the practices of legitimate state agencies since they provide some theoretical prescriptions for the effective treatment methods.

The contemporary intervention practices may be classified, according to the age groups of the patients. Thus, child obesity is treated through the school-based preventive techniques. The intervention implies that the medical sectors of every educational establishment is responsible for measuring the BMI among the students as well as making some recommendations about the learners’ curricula and dietary regimes (Hollar et al., 2009). Concerning the contemporary methods of adult obesity interventions, one regards technology-based methods and behavioral preventions.

College Health Nursing Implications: Reviewing Future Recommendations

The primary objective of a College Health Nursing activity is improving the quality of obesity prevention as well as raising the awareness of the disease conception and treatment methods. The efficient work of the academic institutions relies on overtaking the modern theoretical practices as well as interpreting the findings of practical investigations. One can outline a multilevel scheme of efficient knowledge transmission that dwells on contemporary methodological base. Thus, it is recommended for the College Health Nursing to ground the academic programs on separate aspects. First, it is vital to regard the issue of weight loss motivation, which includes the risk factors, supporting elements, and personal behavior adjustment. Second, the academic foundation has to provide some reliable information on the dietary regimes since healthy nutrition is a background of obesity treatment. This program has to be based on specific cohort guidelines, calories quantification, and products overviews. Third, the goals of physical activity programs have to be discussed in a College Health Nursing, for the citizens have to be provided with some consistent grounding weight maintenance. Finally, the work of academic institutions that specialize in public health has to be directed at the regular monitoring of the individual food and activities regimes. Moreover, a College Health Nursing suggests using the personal diaries that can help the learners to score their obesity treatment performance.

References

Appel, L., Clark, J., Yeh, H., Wang, N., Coughlin, J., & Daumit, G. (2011). Comparative effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in clinical practice. The New England Journal of Medicine, 36(5), 1959-1968.

Braveman, P., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Williams, D., & Pamuk, E. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in health in the United States: What the patterns tell us. American Journal of Public Health, 100(1), 186-196.

Hollar, D., Messiah, S., Lopez-Mitnik, G., Hollar, L., Almon, M., & Agatston, A. (2009). Effect of a two-year obesity prevention intervention on percentile changes in body mass index and academic performance in low-income elementary school children. American Journal of Public Health, 100(4), 646-653.

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Nackers, L., Ross, K., & Perri, M. (2010). The association between rate of initial weight loss and long-term success in obesity treatment: Does slow and steady win the race? International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 17(3), 161-167.

Puhl, R., & Heuer, C. (2010). Obesity stigma: Important considerations for public health. The American Journal of Public Health, 12(1), 1-10.

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