The problem of obesity in African-American women aged between 40 and 65 continues growing and challenging many nurses and public health workers. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017), approximately 56% of black women older than 20 are obese and required additional medical help to manage this condition. In this section, the choice of a sample, setting, strategies, and research design will be made to promote the development of the nurse-practitioner-driven (NP) intervention for preventing and controlling obesity in African-American 40-65-year-old women.
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An understanding and definition of a sample in the study is a crucial step that has to be taken. In the context of nursing or healthcare research and statistics, a sample includes the number of participants for the study and clear population information (Nardi, 2018). The probability sample size involves random selection with a chance for all people to be selected for the study and better and accurate results being achieved. In this intervention, 100 participants who meet the inclusion criteria will be chosen. The power analysis with an acceptable power level of 0.8 or 80% was conducted to verify the necessary sample size and avoid a Type II error (Fugard & Potts, 2015). The setting contains several local healthcare clinics in the state of Florida. Informed consent and cooperation with the research ethics committee were used to receive permission from facilities and potential participants to conduct the study voluntarily.
The criteria for inclusion:
- women aged 40-65
- BMI 30-40
- Race: African-American
- A resident of the state of Florida
- High-level English to speak, read, and understand
The criteria for exclusion:
- Being a participant of another obesity-related program
- Being diagnosed with another disease that may influence weight
- Being a patient of a local clinic and following a therapeutic plan
A sampling strategy depends on the research design and methods with the help of which research questions can be answered, and hypotheses can be proved or disproved. In this study, simple random sampling as a type of probability sampling technique has to be followed. This approach helps to produce precise estimations, reduce sample errors, and avoid biases in population selection (Moser & Kalton, 2016). Databases from local clinics have to be researched to find out 100 participants (African-American women) who meet the inclusion criteria and personally invited to participate in the program. Then, women will be randomly divided into two groups where one group (experimental) participates in the NP-led health education program for one year, and another group (control) does not participate.
To clarify if an educational program can be effective in managing obesity among African-American women, a quantitative randomized controlled trial is an optimal choice. Firstly, it helps to obtain the current results of the female participants before the intervention is made. Then, time and space for the intervention (one year) are identified. Finally, follow-up results are obtained and analyzed. A randomized controlled trial includes an experiment when participants are randomly chosen and divided into groups. In terms of this design, population biases can be reduced. Participants demonstrate their voluntary participation in the study and share their opinions if necessary. Although large samples are usually required, some programs may begin with a limited number of participants. This randomized controlled trial design supports the research problem and identifies the worth of the education program for a specific group of people.
In general, a quantitative randomized controlled trial will be conducted to understand the role of an NP-led education program in the intentions of African-American women aged between 40 and 65 to control obesity. This intervention is promoted after the initial results (BMIs of the participants) are obtained. As soon as the chosen one-year-long program is over, the same vital signs have to be checked and statistically compared.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Health of black of African American non-Hispanic population. Web.
Fugard, A. J. B., & Potts, H. W. W. (2015). Supporting thinking on sample sizes for thematic analyses: A quantitative tool. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(6), 669-684.
Moser, C. A., & Kalton, G. (2016). Survey methods in social investigation. New York, NY: Routledge.
Nardi, P. M. (2018). Doing survey research: A guide to quantitative methods. New York, NY: Routledge.