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Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management

CRM – Provide an example using the CSR (Corporate social responsibility )


Customer relationship management is a concept that, when applied properly, creates value for all stakeholders, including both suppliers and customers. However, it also harbors certain ethical issues that may complicate the outcome. The easiest way to illustrate it is to refer to one of the CSR models, such as the Carroll model. According to it, the foundation of the model is the concern of economic profitability, followed by legal responsibility, compliance with global ethical expectations, and good corporate citizenship. One of the ways to ensure profitability is to establish customers’ behavioral patterns by analyzing CRM data. However, the collection, storage, and usage of such data pose certain risks to customer privacy and the security of sensitive information. It is thus necessary to establish reliable mechanisms of data storage, analysis, and usage which would minimize the possibility of ethical issues without compromising the profitability of the business.

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Using two models explain how these organizational structures can be an advantage (how they support the business?) and disadvantage (how are they complicating things?)

In a vertical structure, each segment of the organization is organized according to its specialization. Most commonly, such a model includes HR, operations, and finance departments, topped by senior management. Such simplicity is an advantage for business since it clearly outlines expectations and establishes modes of communication. By extension, it also allows creating highly specialized teams and clarifies the promotion paths for members. However, it deprives the organization of a holistic view of the process and may create a situation where each department focuses on individual goals and ignore the complete picture. In the divisional structure, several smaller entities have been established that deal with specific types of products or geographic areas. This model is characterized by a higher degree of autonomy for each such entity and ensures a high degree of familiarity with the project within each department. However, it may complicate things by introducing competition between departments and limit the strategic vision. In addition, the unique purpose of each department complicates the management process.

What is management? What is a manager? Explain using 2 models.

From a classical perspective, management is a combination of means intended to improve the performance of individual employees. The perspective traditionally requires the existence of several levels of oversight, in which the managers act as supervisors who control organizational processes and report to a higher authority. Classical management thus relies on rigidly defined procedures and uses productivity as the primary criterion behind human resource management, essentially viewing workers as an asset. The behavior perspective adds a human dimension to management. According to it, management should account for a social aspect of the working environment. Thus, a manager achieves greater productivity by accounting for interpersonal dynamics and norms existing within groups by utilizing the concepts of motivation, personal expectations, and conflict. Behavioral management treats employees as both assets and individuals.

What is contemporary management? At least 2 definitions. What are new management roles emerging?

The most common definition of contemporary management views it as a way of organizing the operations and controlling the process of achieving organizational goals through planning, leadership, and adjustments. However, the emergence of new roles of managers adds new tasks to the concept. For instance, the need to optimize effectiveness at the corporate level introduces the role of effective resource distribution and utilization. It has also been suggested that the growing autonomy of employees disrupts the controlling aspect of management, requiring the managers to shift from roles of coordinators to that of collaborators and mentors. It is also necessary to acknowledge that the notable diversification of the contemporary workforce requires greater flexibility from managers. Finally, the pursuit of antagonistic goals of tighter coordination and greater specialization has defined contemporary management as a skill of achieving high differentiation without compromising the integration qualities of the organization.

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Apply Vroom, Provide a practical workplace example of Vroom, did it work or did it not work?

Vroom’s expectancy theory suggests that motivation in the workplace is determined by the desire of individuals to maximize the likelihood of beneficial outcomes. The easiest example is a situation where a certain employee demonstrates exceptional performance in all aspects of his work. He responsibly engages in all tasks given to him and tries to go beyond the set goals in each scenario. He also participates in additional projects and readily assists his co-workers when they encounter difficulties. It is also apparent that he undertakes the tasks that other employees deem unreasonably difficult. Overall, his efforts surpass the expectations of the management, and, eventually, he gets noticed and rewarded. More importantly, he is considered for a promotion to a managerial position. Since the outcome is determined primarily by the successful anticipation of the employer’s response, it is apparent that in the described scenario the expectancy theory did work for a given employee.

What are your views on having HRM as a separate field of the organization? How does HRM impact the org? How does HRM impact line managers?

The most apparent source of the impact of HRM on organizations is in the field of application of talent and skill to relevant areas. In the strict sense, the ability to recruit and retain a skilled workforce in the positions where their traits are most needed ensures the consistency of performance and enhances flexibility, efficiency, and productivity. More importantly, the ability of an HRM department to identify traits that promote innovation without disrupting a strategic direction may create a competitive advantage. Due to the complexity of the latter, it is beneficial to establish HRM as a separate field in order to ensure appropriate resource allocation and the necessary level of control. It should be understood that regardless of the existence of a separate HRM department, line managers are responsible for implementing many of the HR initiatives. Thus, having HRM as a distinct field also lifts some of the responsibilities from the latter, allowing for fairer workload distribution.

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