The Newman Systems Model implies that a client (patient) is an open system that gives responses to stressors present in the environment. Similarly, the Roy Adaptation Model applied the holistic perspective to a client as a system, which is defined as a “whole with parts that function as a unity for some purpose” (Roy & Andrews, 1999, p. 61). Roy’s theory suggests that health is a process or a state of being integrated into the environment as a whole. Newman, on the other hand, stated that health is a condition of an individual’s stability, which is viewed as a continuum from illness to wellness and vice versa. The second difference is the goal of nursing. While Roy’s model suggests that nursing is needed to ensure patients’ adaptation during illness or health, Newman stated that nursing is needed for recognizing the patient with regards to the environment (“Margaret Newman nursing theory vs. Roy adaptation model,” 2014).
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If to apply the example with the 84-year old patient, Newman’s theory model will review the patient’s mental state due to his recent loss of his wife and lack of communication with his daughter (relationship to the environment). Roy’s theory, on the other hand, will focus on ensuring that the patient adapts to the rehabilitation facility. The third difference is that Roy’s model focuses on determining what factors influence patients’ lack of adaptation while Newman suggested that a nurse should help patients develop higher consciousness levels. For example, in Roy’s model, a nurse will manipulate the environment and apply interventions that will facilitate the patient’s post-surgery recovery (development of a cohesive diet plan, social interactions, physiotherapists visits); in Newman’s model, a nurse will cooperate mode closely with the patient and account for developing higher consciousness levels (e.g. referral to a psychiatrist due to recent loss of the wife) for enhanced recovery.
According to the key principles laid out in the Roy Adaptation Model, a person exists in the constant interactions with the changing world, which forces him or her to use acquired and innate coping mechanisms to adapt to the environment. The Newman Systems implied that to adapt to the environment (or positively respond to the environmental changes), a person should use his or her conscious awareness, self-reflection, and the ability to integrate into the environment. Based on these differences, it can be concluded that a patient’s efforts to improve health are linked to adapting to the environment in various ways.
If to apply the case with Mr. Reynolds, it can be concluded that his recovery can be accomplished in two ways: while Roy’s model will call for the development of coping mechanisms facilitated by nurses (diet interventions, physical improvement, efforts to prevent complications), Newman’s model focuses on conscious awareness (good mental health, social interactions). The second difference is the focus on the environment: while Newman puts little emphasis on the environment, Roy suggested that nurses should assess it to improve patient outcomes (“Margaret Newman nursing theory vs. Roy adaptation model,” 2014). Thus, in Mr. Reynold’s case, in Newman’s model, a nurse will focus predominantly on the physical and mental state of the patient and treat it separately from the environment, which is contrary to what Roy’s model suggests. Lastly, Roy’s model is based on observations and interviews to assess the health state of each individual, which means that a nurse can employ these methods for making sure that a patient is on his way to recovery.
Roy, C., & Andrews, H. (1999). The Roy adaptation model. New York, NY: Appleton & Lange.