The selected neurological disorder for this discussion is a brain tumor. Freberg (2015) indicates that a tumor can be secondary or primary. As the name suggests, secondary tumors usually originate from other body parts such as the kidney, the skin, or the lungs (Gage & Temple, 2013). Colon and breast cancers can also result in secondary brain tumors. Primary tumors usually arise from the brain itself. Many researchers have indicated that primary tumors can be triggered by factors such as nuclear radiation.
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Some tumors of the brain have been categorized as malignant. Such kind of a tumor is characterized by an abnormal growth of cells that lack evident boundaries. The tumor can invade other brain tissues even after surgery. A tumor that might not recur after a surgical procedure is usually benign. The process through which cancerous cells migrate to different body organs or tissues is given the name metastasis (Freberg, 2015).
More often than not, brain tumors usually portray similar symptoms after development. Some of the common symptoms associated with brain tumors include reduced alertness, double vision, headache, seizures, and vomiting (Freberg, 2015). The rate of the heartbeat can also reduce significantly in patients with these tumors. Disruptions can be recorded in different patients depending on the tumor’s location in the brain. For instance, a tumor occurring in the frontal lobe will disorient emotions and behaviors.
Tumors are grouped into two broad categories depending on their tissues of origin. Gliomas are usually common and arise from different glial cells (Freberg, 2015). Some of these cells include oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Meniongomas is a term referring to all tumors arising from the meninges. Surgery is an evidence-based treatment for brain tumors. Radiation and ultrasound therapies can be used to smash up affected tissues. These viewpoints present new understandings about brain tumors, how they affect mankind, and the best approaches to deal with them.
The targeted question here is: Can a brain tumor arise from neurons? The article “Neural Stem Cells: Generating and Regenerating the Brain” presents new ideas that can widen people’s understanding of brain tumors. The link to the article is http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627313009896. The authors acknowledge that meninges and glial cells might not be the only sources of tumors in the brain. The research observes that neural stem cells (NSC) have regenerative power (Gage & Temple, 2013). Stem cells are therefore capable of altering or generating a wide range of functions within the nervous system. Neurons can, therefore, result in the development of brain tumors. This new twist should be analyzed further to deal with brain tumors successfully.
Brain and Psychological Disorders
The question for this selection is: Do people with schizophrenia tend to have different genetic defects? Schizophrenia is a widely analyzed psychological disorder affecting the human brain. New researches indicate that individuals with the condition might display diverse genetic defects. Several brain parts have been observed to influence the nature of this condition. For instance, the prefrontal cortex known to help people organize their thoughts logically might record reduced activities. The number of actions will influence the rate at which delusions or hallucinations occur. Brain activities occur in the auditory and visual cortices. Interferences in the cortices explain why the affected patients act as if they are seeing real events (Freberg, 2015). The amygdala is responsible for processing different feelings such as hunger, lust, and fear. When this part decreases in size, such feelings will be distorted. The sizes of these brain parts differ in persons with the condition. However, schizophrenic symptoms will be displayed by the affected patients.
The functions of various neurotransmitters in the brain explain why people with schizophrenia exhibit diverse symptoms. Neurotransmitters operate and affect various brain parts differently. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter known to help persons arrange their thoughts in the brain. Genes play a critical role in the manner in which different parts of the body function. Genetic constitutions vary from one person to another. Such genetic arrangements will influence chemical reactions in the brain (Freberg, 2015). Some problems during early childhood development can affect various connections. This information explains why the changes experienced during puberty can distort the growth of various brain parts. These genetic differences will result in diverse brain functions and eventually produce unique schizophrenic symptoms.
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Causes of brain tumors
Past studies indicate clearly that brain tumors can arise from neurons, glia, and the meninges (Freberg, 2015). Brain tumors that arise from a given cell in the human brain are usually malignant. Such cancers are known as primary brain tumors. Scientists have indicated that the occurrence of brain tumors is usually rare. Meningiomas are benign tumors arising from the meninges (Freberg, 2015). These are cells contained in different tissues in the brain. Gliomas are common and are believed to arise from glial cells (Gage & Temple, 2013). Glioblastoma tumors have also been observed to arise from glial cells. These cells usually protect the neurons in the brain. Recent studies have gone to indicate that neurons exposed to cancer-inducing conditions or genes tend to transform into differential (stem) cells. Recent studies have indicated that some tumors arise from neurons. Such tumors are usually more aggressive. This is development is not captured in the class text. This understanding expands human knowledge and can be used to manage various brain tumors.
Diagnosing the type of seizure
A patient’s seizure is preceded by an aura, produces no changes in consciousness, does not affect both hemispheres symmetrically, and is accompanied by paroxysmal depolarizing shifts (PDSs) in the patient’s EEG.
After analyzing the presented signs and symptoms carefully, a physician will diagnose a simple partial seizure. An elimination approach can successfully guide the physician to come up with an accurate diagnosis. A generalized seizure (grand mal or petit mal) should be eliminated in such a scenario. This is the case because such seizures do affect both hemispheres symmetrically (Freberg, 2015). This is not evident in the presented patient. Cognitive disturbances usually characterize complex partial seizures. That being the case, the targeted patient has recorded no changes in his or her consciousness. This approach will make it easier for the physician to focus on a simple partial seizure. This kind of seizure will, therefore, be preceded by an aura. It will also be accompanied by PDSs (paroxysmal depolarizing shifts) in the patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG) (Freberg, 2015). These are equivalent to sensations or movements depending on the location of the focal point. This understanding will, therefore, ensure the right medical support is available to the targeted client.
Stimulant medications for ADHD have different effects on people with and without disorder
This is the case because stimulant medications for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will have diverse effects on patients with the condition than on healthy persons. Individuals who have the disorder will benefit from various stimulant medications because they result in improved attention and school performance (Freberg, 2015). The medication can make the affected individual emotionally subdued. Some of these medications include Adderall (amphetamine salts) and methylphenidate (Ritalin). However, those who do not have the condition can portray diverse results or side effects from ADHD drugs.
Healthy persons who misuse of ADHD stimulant drugs can exhibit various symptoms such as cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and myocardial infarction (Gage & Temple, 2013). Many experts argue that such persons should be discouraged from using stimulant medications since they can experience suicidal thoughts. More studies should also be conducted in an attempt to understand the benefits and health risks associated with the continued misuse of drugs for ADHD. The approach will ensure the health needs of more people with ADHD are met.
Experiences of adults with schizophrenia
From 2001, Thompson and his colleagues conducted a study aimed at analyzing the development of schizophrenia in adolescents. After five years, the team observed that adults with schizophrenia experienced less loss of gray matter during their adolescence. The researchers observed an unrelenting and pervasive loss of gray matter in the subjects. They noticed that most of the teenagers with the condition had already lost over 25 percent of gray matter in various brain areas (Lopez-Morinigo et al., 2016). The rate of gray matter loss was observed to reduce significantly in healthy adults. The high rate of gray matter loss before the age of 18 was linked to a wide range of passive and active symptoms associated with the condition. Some of these symptoms include delusions and hallucinations. Such symptoms are eventually followed by withdrawal, depression, and flattened emotions in adults (Freberg, 2015). This knowledge was critical since it empowered many scientists to produce better medications and therapies capable of dealing with the medical condition.
Freberg, L. (2015). Discovering behavioral neuroscience: An introduction to biological psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Gage, F., & Temple, S. (2013). Neural stem cells: Generating and regenerating the brain. Neuron, 80(3), 588-601. Web.
Lopez-Morinigo, J., Ayesa-Arriola, R., Torres-Romano, B., Fernandes, A., Shetty, H., Broadbent, M., … Dutta, R. (2016). Risk assessment and suicide by patients with schizophrenia in secondary mental healthcare: A case–control study. BMJ Open, 6(1), 1-11. Web.
Louis, D., Perry, A., Reifenberger, G., Deimling, A., Figarella-Branger, D., Cavenee, W., … Ellison, D. (2016). The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system: A summary. Acta Neuropathol, 1(1), 1-18. Web.