Pneumonia in Children: Assessment and Treatment


Pneumonia is one of the chronic inflammatory processes in the lungs that is caused by the obstruction of the air sacs. This condition may be caused by a variety of factors, including viruses and bacteria. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the possible cause of the chosen lower respiratory tract infection that usually affects one part of the lung (Weinberg, 2017). Viral pneumonia is observed among young children and characterized as a mild respiratory complication.

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Blood tests, chest X-rays, and pulse oximetry are defined as the main diagnostic tools for pneumonia patients. The results of blood tests can prove or disprove the presence of an infection in the body. The location of the infection can be defined with the help of X-rays. Finally, even the level of oxygen can signalize about the potential problems.


The assessment of the lungs to detect pneumonia depends on the age of a child. For example, infants should be assessed in terms of their birth weight, the history of apnea episodes, and feeding problems (Sawyer, 2012). Toddlers have to be asked about the nature of coughing onsets if any, tuberculin test results, and asthma diagnosis. Attention to the history of tobacco smoking, radiation, and hormonal changes should be paid during the assessment of adolescents.

Plan of Care

Antibiotics turn out to be the main part of any plan of care that can be offered to pediatric patients. Hospitalization is usually required for young children so that doctors can observe the reactions on treatment and make urgent corrections. Outpatient management is allowed. Much rest and water should help the child to deal with pneumonia pain and avoid complications.

Referral to a Pulmonologist

Further cooperation with a pulmonologist is recommended. This doctor can help to recognize respiratory complications in their early stages and take the required precautions. Regular blood tests and annual X-rays aim at controlling pulmonary problems.


Burns, C. E., Dunn, A. M., Brady, M. A., Starr, N. B., Blosser, C. G., & Maaks, D. L. G. (Eds.). (2017). Pediatric primary care (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hunt, R., Armstrong, D., Katelaris, P., Afihene, M., Bane, A., Bhatia, S.,… LeMair, A. (2017). World gastroenterology organisation global guidelines: GERD global perspective on gastroesophageal reflux disease. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 51(6), 467-478.

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Sawyer, S. S. (2012). Pediatric physical examination & health assessment. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Weinberg, G. A. (2017). Respiratory syncytial virus mortality among young children. The Lancet Global Health, 5(10), 951-952.

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