Diversity of language and culture
Back in elementary school, a Korean boy had some speech problems. His problem in the speech was notable when speaking letters r, l, and sh. The problem was as well notable in words that contain these letters. His reading skills were poor, coupled with unusually slow writing full of mistakes. Although he liked making jokes, his speech was hard for others to comprehend. His speech problem came across as an abnormality because of difficulty in understanding what he meant (Hulit, Howard, & Fahey, 2010).
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Furthermore, all other people could speak without any problem. Unfortunately, the people around him could make fun of his speaking challenges, which resulted in frustrations. I was his best friend, and thus I encouraged him always and never made fun of his problem.
As an adult, I would identify my bias in Native American languages. My belief is that Native American languages are a cause of speech problems when its speaker attempts to speak in English, more so for the Hawaiian speakers. I think this way because my friends who speak Native American languages often have problems with fluency. Their disorder is typified by a hesitation as well as the furtherance of sounds, which hinders the forward course of the speech, hence a lack of fluency in speech.
Cluttering refers to a language and speech problem, unlike stammering and stuttering. Its etiology belongs to a class of theories engaging cognitive development capabilities, theories denoting the integrity of the central nervous system, genetic forms, and forms ordinary to cluttering and stuttering. Its classification lies in the dyslexia disorder. The effects of cluttering on the psychosocial and cognitive advancements in children include poor performance in school.
Making fun of or insulting the children with the disorder makes them lose self-esteem and dignity. The presence of vital and sensitive instances in the advancement of brain role, in a manner, that the cognitive and psychological effects of this disorder in children might be impracticable to undo at later ages (American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2012). The ordinary characteristic of children with this impairment is that they attempt to talk faster. The fast method of speech disfigures the whole process, and the child affected by this impairment is incapable of expressing his or her sentiments and views.
The speech of children facing cluttering has verbiage full of false sections. The speech also has words inappropriate to the meaning being expressed and is not fluent. When mazes are common, clinical knowledge proposes that their inducement is linguistic or cognitive.
Etiology of cluttering
The central nervous system integrity, as an etiology of autism, has been the focus of extensive accounts for communication disorders. The initial account targeted the central nervous system as a whole. Early medical analysis, for instance, give reports that subclinical EEG (electroencephalogram) deformities are often observed in children who have communication disorders. Nonetheless, a specific position has been proposed, founded on the early EEG study.
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In the striatal cortex, the general position of basal ganglia, the existence of minute lesions point to autism. Unluckily, these early studies predated the advancement of localization of particular and impermanent susceptible brain-imaging expertise (Baddeley, 2003). Therefore, they were prompted to make use of elementary and early types of the clinical electroencephalogram. Such could have been doable with the presently suggested reaction potential policies that are time-connected with certain linguistic or further motivations. Furthermore, such research could help to explain the temporal aspects of how certain cognitive reactions open up in response to stimulus situations.
Additional studies pointed to the basal ganglia based on similarities amongst different elements of speech found between children who face having communication disorders and those experiencing hypokinetic dysarthria. Recently, scholars have suggestions that connect autism with particular forms of learning impairment and attention-associated disturbances founded on research making use of new brain imaging expertise.
A different etiological explanation engages cognitive processing integrity. The particular cognitive processes involved in autism are linguistic processing, awareness, central auditory progression, motor speech associated roles, and multiple cognitive systems associated roles. Evidently, linguistic processing ideas have obtained the most concentration in cognitive processing-associated autism accounts. A synergistic structure describes how the difficulties of children who clutter, as a form of autism, start from an inclination to generate speech at speed too quickly for the child to manage (Carreiras, Mechelli, & Price, 2006).
With this occurrence, the timing of different communication occasion is neither well-coordinated nor incorporated. Consequences of this independence comprise speech that is not fluent, meager speech lucidity, and compromises in description and conversation skills.
Most scholars and psychologists appear to be in an extensive agreement that autism might reveal a potential genetic tendency for speech that is not fluent. There is proof that cluttering, for instance, anchors in families. Additionally, based on genetic explanations, it is more likely to occur amongst males than in females (Baddeley, 2003). In autism, possible connections also exist between stuttering and cluttering. The evident link between these disorders proposes a possible relatedness of their particular etiologies.
Autism can augment depression and anxiety intensities in social conditions for the speaker. A majority of students with autism encounter harassment at school, in addition to facing troubles in making companionships (Hulit, Howard, & Fahey, 2010). The stigmatization connected with autism might control self-esteem, as persons with speech disorders frequently experience dejection, social segregation, and substandard performance in studies and standardized examinations.
Feelings of humiliation, indignity, irritation, fear, annoyance, and blame are common in people who have communication disorders and might actually augment stress and effort, bringing about increased autism. A person with autism might develop low self-esteem and self-contempt if often exposed to autism experience. A person with autism might as well shift his or her feelings onto others, considering that they believe he or she is uneasy or thick (Carreiras, Mechelli, & Price, 2006).
Such unconstructive feelings and mindsets might require being an outstanding center of a therapy program. Many people with communication disorders report concerning high sentimental cost comprising occupations or supports not obtained, as well as affiliations wrecked or not pursued.
One Agency in the US that provides support for children with autism and their families is the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC). This agency organizes all attempts in the Health and Human Services (HHS) department regarding Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and guarantees that an extensive range of initiatives and viewpoints are represented and considered. In 2007, Bulgaria was the venue for the convention on autism.
The name given to it was ‘The First World Conference on Cluttering.’ This conference drew more than sixty contributors from across different regions and nations. At some stage in the conference, there was the formation of an agency to assist people with communication disorders. The name given to this agency is the International Cluttering Association (ICA). National Autism Association is another agency dedicated to the aid of persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Due to limited research, there is no typical way of treatment for autism. The contemporary treatment is tailored to the particular needs and indications of the individual (Baddeley, 2003).
One particular method that has been successful in some instances is Delayed Auditory Feedback (DAF). DAF is a contraption through which one can speak and listen to his/her words and voice later on. DAF permits people with autism to study their own speech while timing themselves, with the aim of generating a more purposeful and overstated oral-motor reaction pattern. Additional treatment constituents comprise bettering narrative formation with tale-telling image books, practicing talking in turn, pausing performance, as well as language therapy.
Connecting Theory with Practice
Personally, I have come to understand the enchantment of speech. Astonishing, every individual who can talk is gifted with a form of intellectual telepathy since human speech permits one brain of an individual to converse with the brain of another individual in a marvelous and nearly magical way. Professionally, I have learned about communication, language, and speech, in addition to learning the four processes of speech, which include articulation, respiration, resonation, and phonation (Hulit, Howard, & Fahey, 2010). Personally and professionally, I have gained the knowledge that the environment can influence even traits of an individual extensively considered exclusively genetic (Hulit, Howard, & Fahey, 2010).
Additionally, I have improved my understanding of psychology in addition to language advancement in children. For instance, children are not aware if they are Japanese or French when they are brought into being. They talk the language they listen to, but the innate ability for all languages is alike, regardless of the place of birth (Hulit, Howard, & Fahey, 2010). According to the explanation of The Social Interactionist, language development in children is a natural result of social interactions with people prior to their capability to construct language types (Hulit, Howard, & Fahey, 2010).
American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2012). Making effective communication, a human right, accessible and achievable for all. Web.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 189–208.
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Carreiras, M., Mechelli, A., & Price, C. J. (2006). Effect of word and syllable frequency on activation during lexical decision and reading aloud. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 963–972.
Hulit, L. M., Howard, M. R., & Fahey, K.R. (2010). Born to Talk (5th Ed.). London: Pearson.