English and Hindi
|1||SOV||SVO||Unlike in the system of the English language, the system of Hindu presupposes that the subject of the sentence was followed by the object.|
|2||Place – Adverb – Verb||Verb – Place – Adverb||In contrast to English, where the verb takes the first place after the subject of the sentence, in Hindu, the verb is being preceded by the adverb of place.|
|3||To be in Present Simple||Present Simple without the auxiliary||Unlike the English language, in the Hindu equivalent of Present Simple, the verb to be should be used, which cannot occur in English.|
|4||raha||-ing||It is worth admitting that both in English and Hindu the Continuous form is used, yet, while in English, the suffix is used, in Hindu, the word rahais added to the verb.|
|5||Endings for determining the gender of the speaker||Pronouns for determining the gender of the speaker||Unlike in English, in Hindu, it is possible to determine the gender of the doer without the personal pronoun, but with the help of the inflections of the verb.|
|6||Past Perfect||Past Indefinite||Where in English the Past Indefinite is applied, in Hindu, the form of Past Perfect is typically used.|
Pedagogy refers to the science or art of giving instructions or how teachers orchestrate learning, whether in a classroom setting or anywhere else. Pedagogy has acquired more scientific reasoning based on facts, thus educationists are looking for facts regarding teaching, for instance, of a foreign language (Mackenzie, 2003). A teacher needs to know and acquire the techniques he or she may apply to mitigate the problems faced in the pedagogy of English as a foreign language to Hindi speakers (Begley, 1998).
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Aspects of the Verb in the Hindi Language in Comparison to English
Hindi differs from English in terms of the syntax of words in a sentence in many of its tenses. This difference is usually responsible for the difficulty experienced by teachers, students, and language professionals, such as translators and interpreters. Teachers especially have a tough time when trying to explain the meaning of their English sentences in Hindi.
Standard Hindi sentences are in the order of subject > object > verb, while the word order in English is subject > verb > object. Therefore, a simple sentence in English and its corresponding one in Hindi would not make sense to an English speaker. (Omkar, 2008)
In English, a typical sentence, according to the order Subject>Verb>Object would be:
‘I learn Hindi’
In Hindi, following the order Subject>object> Verb, it would be:
‘I Hindi Learn’.
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However, a slight similarity exists in the position of the negative ‘not’ or ‘nahiin’ as it is written in Hindi. The word ‘nahiin’ in Hindi and it’s equivalent ‘not’ in English come just before the verb.
Aspect in Other Hindi Tenses
In English, the normal order in imperative sentences is Verb- place- adverb, while in Hindi, the word order is Place->Adverb>verb. For example, in the following sentence
English: Come here now
Hindi: Here now come
In English, typical questions come in the order Adverb>verb>subject>verb as in the question:
What are you drawing?
In Hindi, they are in the order subject-adverb-verb, which translates to:
You what draw?
In Hindi, the Past Imperfect that indicates past habitual actions is formed like the Present Imperfect. However, this tense incorporates the past tense ‘hina’ or ‘be’ instead of the Present Simple. Example in the following sentence:
Yah bolta tha=> he used to speak. In this sentence,
Ta=>suffix for masculine
Tha=>past simple of “be”
Thus, in Hindi, it would translate to:
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He speaks used to
In Hindi, the Past Continuous tense is made up of:
Stem +raha/rahe/rahi+past tense of hona
Yah bol raha tha => he was speaking
In Hindi, ‘raha’ is the equivalent of ‘ing’ in English
If you were to make the sentence in the Hindi syntax, the sentence would be:
He speaking was.
When it comes to the future tense, Hindi speakers add unga/ega/enge/ or egi to the stem.
‘Unga’ is the Hindi word for the pronoun I
Ega=> this, he, it
Egi=> she or this,
Therefore, Yah bolega is Hindi for ‘he will speak.’
Yah:he bol:speak ega: “will” for masculine
But if you were to arrange the English sentence according to the Hindi word order, the sentence arising would be ‘He speak will.’
In Hindi, the past perfect tense is used in verbs where English speakers would use the simple past: I had gone for I went
It is important to mark that the tense aspect is one of the key issues that differs it from English and at the same time allows to draw certain parallels. Hence, the consideration of the Hindu tense systems and comparing them to the English structures is essential. Since the above-mentioned sources offer a detailed description of the specific features of the Hindu tense system and compare it to the English system efficiently, it can be concluded that the scheme offered above is valid for teaching the language.
Considering each of the sources closer, one should mention that Mackenzie offers sufficient information. However, one of the flaws of the given source is its being focused solely on certain examples, while more common cases are not considered.
Another source that should be marked as a worthwhile is Begley’s (1998) work, which allows to understand the importance of teaching students to “ape” the language instead of repeating words which do not make sense to them. However, comprising the given sources, one is likely to succeed in creating the scheme for teaching students Hindu, for both offer creative and at the same time verified approach to the students and activates their learning abilities.
Begley, S., (1998). Aping language. Newsweek.131, 56-58.
Mackenzie J., (2003). Pedagogy Does Matter! Web.
Omkar N., (2008) Modern Hindi Grammar, Dunwoody Press.111-292.