The development and acquisition of language skills and speech by children have always been of particular interest for linguists. The way children learn and produce language differs drastically among various age groups. Although there are possible violations of the norm, there are cases when children face difficulty in receiving and producing language. When these violations are not appropriate for the particular age group or when they hinder the successful learning, the child should be diagnosed with speech and language disorders. Speech and language disorders may become obstacles towards child’s academic success.
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According to the Individuals with Disabilities Act, “speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects child’s educational performance” (Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004, n.d., para. 19). IDEA is a primary source for the protection of rights of learners with disabilities. Thus, IDEA guarantees that all students including those who have speech and language impairments have equal access to FAPE — free and appropriate public education.
The problem of speech and language impairment should be addressed adequately in every school environment. Difficulties with reception and production of language impede child’s academic performance. Most children who have some impairment cannot follow all requirements of the particular grade. It is the primary responsibility of schools and educators to provide all necessary conditions for the successful education of such pupils. In the field, the topic is investigated from several perspectives. Thus, some scholars focus on the evaluation of fundamental reasons for the development of impairments. The other area refers to the peculiarities of the identification of language disorders in English language learners. Also, there are controversies concerning appropriate ways of intervention.
Bishop, D., & Leonard, L. (Eds.). (2014). Speech and Language Impairments in Children. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
The book under consideration is a collection of various researches concerning reasons and intervention of speech and language difficulties. Investigations of educational researchers are gathered in the source for the evaluation of causes (poverty, genetics, and cultural background), peculiarities of impairments (the connection with syntax, grammar, reading, and literacy), and interventions. The book is intended for researchers. Besides, educators may find useful information to consider while choosing the best techniques of teaching pupils with speech and language impairments.
Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004. (n.d.). Web.
The source provides the text of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (2004). It is prepared by the U.S. Department of Education. The source is useful for both educators and parents. It is a legal text that provides all necessary information concerning rights of children with disabilities.
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Fisher, S. (2009). Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or a Language Issue. Professional Development in Education, 7(2), 13-19.
The author of the article addresses the issue of language learning disabilities in English language learners. According to the article, there is often a misinterpretation whether the student is a slow learner or has learning disabilities. The incorrect diagnosis may lead to the adverse effects on the student’s personality. The author provides information about possible reasons for misdiagnosis. Also, Fisher writes about the difference between language disability and language issue. Finally, the author dwells on the way of the identification of language disabilities in ELL. The author is an educational researcher who has written the paper from the combination of educational and behavioral perspectives. The article is a useful source for school educators and other researchers.
Handler, S., & Fierson, W. (2011). Learning Disabilities, Dyslexia, and Vision. Pediatrics, 127(3), 818-856.
Authors introduce information about dyslexia — a reading disability that belongs to receptive language-based disorders. Authors dwell on causes and remedial programs for reading difficulties. They also emphasize the importance of an early recognition of the problem for the most efficient result. The article refers to the connection between visual problems and reading disabilities. Authors of the source are medical doctors and researchers who rely on medical perspective. The topic addresses the controversy of causes of reading disabilities and appropriate interventions.
Lerner, J., & Johns, B. (2014). Learning Disabilities and Related Disabilities: Strategies for Success. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
The book is a knowledgeable source that provides relevant information concerning theoretical and practical aspects of the issue. Authors evaluate theories of learning and describe strategies. Thus, separate parts of the books are devoted to strategies for spoken language difficulties, reading, and writing difficulties. The book is written from the perspective of an education researcher and the combination of educational and behavioral theoretical frameworks. The information is useful for parents, educators, and students.
Murdoch, B. (2013). Acquired Speech and Language Disorders: a Neuroanatomical and Functional Neurological Approach. New York, NY: Springer.
The book under consideration represents a valid source for the understanding of the connection between various neurological processes and speech and language impairments. The purpose of the source is to provide a detailed explanation of speech pathology from perspectives of neuroanatomy and functional neurology. The author has written this book due to the lack of sources that describe the issue from this particular viewpoint. The author of the book is an educator. The source is written from a purely medical theoretical framework. It provides information about different speech and language impairments and specific learning disabilities.
Smith-Lock, K., Leitao, S., Lambert, L., & Nickels. L. (2013). Effective intervention for expressive grammar in children with specific language impairment. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 48(3), 265-282.
Pupils who have problems with productive areas of language often experience extreme difficulties when studying grammar. Expressive grammar is considered to be rather a challenge for both educators and students. The purpose of the article is to assess the efficiency of a school-based intervention program for pupils who are five years old. The article is written from the perspective of the researcher, and it is useful for the further evaluation of school educators. Authors have found out that individual intervention is the most effective for those children who do not have problems with articulation of particular grammatical forms. Techniques of direct intervention, imitation, and focused stimulation have been used for the study.